Questions
1) Describe the effect of hypovolemic shock on the blood vessels and the heart. 2) Atherosclerosis...

1) Describe the effect of hypovolemic shock on the blood vessels and the heart.

2) Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of blood vessels that is responsible for millions of deaths each year. Describe the disease process, noting the involvement of specific cell/tissue types and molecules.

3) A woman in her early 50s appeared at a walk-in clinic, complaining of aching pain in her right leg following a fall. Visual examination revealed that the medial aspect of that leg was red and swollen. A diagnosis of phlebitis was made. What is phlebitis, and what more serious condition may result if proper healing does not occur?

4) For each of the following situations, describe the anticipated effect on blood pressure and the physiological basis of the response: (1) a high-salt diet, (2) a blow on the head that damages (disables) the vasomotor center, (3) an attack by a mugger, and (4) a hypothalamic tumor resulting in excess ADH production.

5) Mrs. Gray, a 50-year-old mother of seven children, is complaining of dull, aching pains in her legs. She reports that they have been getting progressively worse since the birth of her last child. During her physical examination, numerous varicosities are seen in both legs. How are varicosities recognized? What veins are most likely involved? What pathologic changes have occurred in these veins, and what is the most likely cause in this patient's case?

6) Mr. Wilson is a 45-year-old stockbroker with essential hypertension. He is African American, obese, and he smokes 2-3 packs of cigarettes daily. What risk factors for hypertension are typified by Mr. Wilson? What steps should be taken to treat Mr. Wilson, and what lifestyle changes should he make? What complications are likely if corrective steps are not taken?

7) A pregnant patient comes into a clinic and asks about a small painless dark compressible bulge that is becoming more apparent on her leg. What is it and what caused it?

8) At the battle of Shiloh in the American Civil War, Confederate General A. S. Johnston was killed when he was shot in the thigh. Witnesses reported that he bled to death almost before he realized that he was wounded. Which blood vessel was most likely to have been injured? Why is a tourniquet usually ineffective in stopping the bleeding from this wound?

9) A patient lost a lot of blood during surgery and his blood pressure dropped from 120/80 to 90/50. Describe how the kidneys respond to this change in blood pressure.

10) A patient has an 80% blockage of his left anterior descending coronary artery. Describe what occurs in terms of myocardial oxygen supply and demand if his sympathetic nervous system is stimulated.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Physical training can lead to changes in muscle composition and properties of local motor neurons, both...

Physical training can lead to changes in muscle composition and properties of local motor neurons, both of which will alter our capabilities to carry out movements. Are the following statements about that type of plasticity of our motor system TRUE or FALSE?

While riding a bike, maintaining posture to keep sitting on the saddle is carried out by slow motor units, while the legs use fast fatigable motor units, while working really hard to get up a short steep incline very fast.

Imagine you previously trained for lifting heavy weights and now train for running marathons, This leads to an increase in the excitability of the motor neurons, so that neurons start to become active with weaker stimulation.

Due to the decreased excitability of motor neurons after training for heavy lifting, the muscle fibers they activate become active already when the task is to lift very light objects.  

Unless your little pinky finger is trained to do heavy lifting, we can safely assume that the motor neurons that activate its muscles contact only very few muscle fibers.

A motor neuron that has a relatively short duration of hyperpolarization (overshoot) after an action potential is expected to be able to produce higher action potential firing frequencies and thus stronger contractions of muscle fibers.

A fast, large, strong, fast fatigable (FF) motor unit motor neuron that was trained to do heavy lifting has a very small axon diameter.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

ACTION POTENTIAL (AP) ON A NEURON 1.     For each of the following channels, indicate what specifically opens...

ACTION POTENTIAL (AP) ON A NEURON

1.     For each of the following channels, indicate what specifically opens it, what specifically closes it, and what goes through (& in what direction) when it is open.

Voltage-gated Na+ channel

Voltage-gated K+ channel

2.     What are leak channels? What purpose do they serve in neurons?

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Describe the adaptive immune response of the body to (and include attack mechanisms) a. invading bacteria....

Describe the adaptive immune response of the body to (and include attack mechanisms)

a. invading bacteria.

b. invading viruses.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Cardiovascular System Blood Blood is made up ______ plasma and _______ formed elements. Plasma is mostly...

Cardiovascular System

Blood

  1. Blood is made up ______ plasma and _______ formed elements. Plasma is mostly ________ with dissolved __________.  
  2. __________ account for most of the formed elements. These cells transport ___________. RBCs are produced in the ________ in response to ________ that is produced in the ________ in response to _________
  3. White blood cells are a part of the __________. The most common white blood cells are __________ and the least common are ________. ___________ kill bacteria; _________ produce antibodies; ______ fight parasites; ________ scavenge debris.
  4. Your blood type is based on the _________ on the surface of the RBCs. There are _______ possible blood types. The two most common blood types are __________. The universal donor blood type is ________; the universal acceptor blood type is _______. The possible genotypes for A, B, AB, O blood are_________. Type AB+ blood has ___________ antigens and _______antibodies. Type O+ has ________antigens and _______antibodies. Type A- blood can be safely transfused to __________ recipients

Heart Physiology

  1. The period of ventricular relaxation is called _________ and the period of ventricular contraction is called _________. The first heart sound is heard during _________ and the second heart sound is heard during ________. The volume of blood in one ventricle at the end of systole is called _________; the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole is called ________; the volume of blood that is ejected during systole is called the _________
  2. The 5 phases of the cardiac cycle are ____________. Blood leaves the ventricles during __________; blood enters the ventricles during ________.
  3. The pacemaker cells of the heart are located in the ___________. Pacemaker cells are needed in order to activate __________ which are responsible for ____________.   Electrical activity spreads from the SA node to the ____________ and finally to the ________ which trigger the contraction of the ________.
  4. The three phases of the action potential of non-pacemaker cells are __________. ________ is caused by the influx of _________. Calcium influx during the ________ triggers the release of calcium from the _________. This calcium is necessary to allow for ________
  5. The three waves of the EKG are ___________. The _________ precedes ventricular contraction; the ________ precedes atrial contraction. Repolarization of the ventricles generates the ________.
  6. The cardiac output is __________ it is equal to SV x ______. The cardiac reserve is the ________
  7. The maximum pressure generated by the ventricle is called the ___________. The minimum pressure generated by the ventricle is called the _________. The average pressure during one cardiac cycle is called the _________. The SP, DP, PP, MAP of a patient with a blood pressure reading of 120/80 is ___________.
  8. The baroreceptor reflex: High blood pressure activates baroreceptors in the _______ which relay information through CN ________ to the __________ and _________ centers. The integrating centers will _______ blood vessels and __________ HR which will ________. Low blood pressure will lead to ______ of blood vessels, _______ of contractility, and ________ HR.
  9. The DP and SP values for Normal blood pressure, Prehypertension, Stage 1 hypertension and stage 2 hypertension are _________

Skeletal Muscle System

Muscle Contraction

  1. The phase of the sliding filament mechanisms are activation of myosin followed by __________; the last step is _______. The detachment phase requires ___________. The power stroke phase requires __________. A crossbridge is formed between _________. Calcium binds to ________ which is necessary for _________.
  2. At the neuromuscular junction, __________ is released by the neuron; it binds to ________ on the muscle cell to eventually trigger ___________. Action potentials in skeletal muscle cells are needed _________.
  3. During ___________ contractions, the muscle stays at the same length; During _________ contractions, the muscle shortens; the muscle lengthens during ________ contractions
  4. Type 1 muscle fibers produce ATP ________ and fatigue ________; type 2a fibers produce ATP ________ and fatigue ________; type 2b fibers produce ATP __________ and fatigue _______.

Endocrine System

Hormone Classes

  1. Hormones can be chemically classified as _____________. __________ are water soluble and ________ are lipid soluble
  2. Water soluble hormones bind to receptors ____________ which activate ___________. Lipid soluble hormones bind to ___________ and trigger ___________.
  3. Hormones may interact ________________. Interactions in which the effect of one hormone depends on prior action of another hormone are called _________. _________ interactions have opposing effects and _________ interactions have amplifying effect

Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

  1. Hypothalamic hormones travel to the anterior pituitary through the ____________. TRH triggers the release of _________; CRH triggers the release of _______; GnRH triggers the release of _______; GHRH triggers the release of ________; dopamine inhibits the release of ________; somatostatin inhibits the release of ________.
  2. ____________ and ___________ are made in the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary by the _______________.
  3. Hormone Effects
    1. __________ stimulates ovarian follicular growth and _________ stimulates sperm cell production; _________ stimulates the release of thyroid hormone; __________ stimulates the release of cortisol; __________stimulates milk production; _________ stimulates growth of bones and muscles
    2. Oxytocin triggers ________________ and ADH stimulates ____________.

Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland

  1. Calcitonin _________________ and parathyroid hormone __________ blood calcium
  2. Thyroid hormone is secreted as ___________ but the active form is ___________.
  3. TH ________ATP production, _______ adrenergic receptors, and _________ brain development

Adrenal Gland

  1. The zona glomerulosa produces _________; the zona fasciculata produces __________ and the zona reticularis produces ________.
  2. Cortisol stimulates _____________; aldosterone triggers ___________; androgens trigger __________

Pancreas

  1. Beta cells produce __________, alpha cells produce __________ and delta cells produce __________.
  2. ___________ decreases blood glucose and _________ increases blood glucose; _________ maintains blood glucose levels
  3. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the ___________; it normal onsets _________. Type 2 diabetes is caused by ___________.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Describe the morphology of the inflammation caused by the resistance of the organism?

Describe the morphology of the inflammation caused by the resistance of the organism?

In: Anatomy and Physiology

PART A QUESTIONS: Choose 1 variable from the list below:  low blood calcium levels ...

PART A QUESTIONS:

Choose 1 variable from the list below:

 low blood calcium levels

 low blood sodium levels

Then, perform research to answer the following questions about the variable you chose.

A) Determine the negative feedback cycle by which the variable you chose is restored to normal blood levels. List the 5 components of the cycle in order, like this:

1. Variable = choose 1 from list above

2. sensor/receptor =

3. control center =

4. effector(s) =

5. physiological response(s) =

B) Name at least 3 organ systems involved in regulating the variable that you chose and describe HOW each system is involved. Hint: use Chapter 9 covering the endocrine system as one of your references. NOTE: this question asks for the names & descriptions of 3 SYSTEMS (ex. cardiovascular system), not individual organs (ex. heart)

. II. A&P: The human body is capable of performing a variety of functions due to its complex structural organization (anatomy). Choose 2 human organs, ex. stomach, eye, triceps muscle, heart, etc. For each organ that you chose:

A) List 5 words which describe the organ's anatomy ~ such as shape, size, structure, color, location, texture, tissue composition and organization, solid/hollow, hard/soft ~ these are examples of anatomical (structural) descriptors; words that describe anatomy are usually adjectives

B) List at least 2 functions of each organ that you chose. Physiology includes what the organ does, why the body needs it, and the jobs achieved by that organ related to serving the body as a whole in order to maintain health ~ such as ability to contract, digest, secrete, communicate, regulate, transport, clean, protect, etc. ~ functions are usually verbs (action words)

Part B: Biochemistry (Ch. 2) (20 points)

INTRODUCTION: Use your textbook (Ch. 2) and reliable websites to answer the following question related to biochemistry in the human body. Write your answers in complete sentences with correct spelling and grammar. Provide definitions for any scientific terms included in your answer.

PART B FORMAT EXAMPLE: For each numbered item, write the number, the topic of the question (in UPPER CASE font) and your answer(s) to the questions. Follow the example below.

1. ELEMENTS

A answer

B. answer

2. TRACE ELEMENTS

Write TRUE or FALSE and justify your answer

3. etc.

PART B QUESTIONS:

1) ELEMENTS

A. Name the 5 most abundant elements in the human body, in order of most abundant to least.

B. Create a mnemonic to remember this information. HINT: refer to this website to learn about mnemonics: https://literaryterms.net/mnemonic/

2) TRACE ELEMENTS TRUE or FALSE: Trace elements are not required for human life. Justify your response by defining what a “trace element” is and discussing 2 examples that support your answer.

3) CHEMICAL EQUATION

A. Balance this equation: C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + ATP

B. Which chemicals are the reactants (substrates)? Name them.

C. Which are the products? Name them.

D. What is the name of this chemical reaction?

E. Cells must be able to perform this chemical reaction TO STAY ALIVE. Why is this reaction critical for cell life?

F. This reaction produces the most common cellular waste product in the body – carbon dioxide. High levels of carbon dioxide cause blood pH to fall, making plasma acidic – this can lead to metabolic problems. How does the body get rid of CO2?.

4) SOLUTIONS Plasma is the liquid component of blood (cells have been removed). It is mostly made of water plus solutes. It is one of many aqueous solutions in the human body.

A. What is the solvent in plasma?

B. Name at least 5 solutes in plasma.

C. In addition to blood (plasma), there are other water-based solutions present inside the human body or secreted/excreted from the body which are water-based. Name 3 other aqueous solutions that the human body produces.

5) SUBATOMIC PARTICLES & ATOM STABILITY

A. When is an atom most stable?

B. Which subatomic particles participate in bond formation?

C. Where are these particles located?

6) CHEMICAL BONDS

A. Name and define the 3 types of chemical bonds.

B. Which type of bond is the strongest? Which is the weakest?

7) MACROMOLECULES Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules which are polymers. These macromolecules are in our food, bloodstream, and the structural components of the cell. Name the monomers (smallest building blocks) of each type of macromolecule below:

A. Carbohydrates:

B. Proteins:

C. Nucleic acids:

*Can someone please answer all of these I have no idea

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Shaun has pneumonia. Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes the alveoli to accumulate pus and/or...

Shaun has pneumonia. Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes the alveoli to accumulate pus and/or fluid. How does this effect the diffusion of oxygen into the blood?

The accumulation of pus and/or fluid will thicken the respiratory membrane does not affect diffusion nor oxygen uptake into the blood
The accumulation of pus and/or fluid will thicken the respiratory membrane and slow down the diffusion rate. This would increase the amount of oxygen taken up by the blood.
The accumulation of pus and/or fluid will thicken the respiratory membrane and slow down the diffusion rate. This would decrease the amount of oxygen taken up by the blood.
The accumulation of pus and/or fluid will damage the diffusion membrane, increasing diffusion and the amount of oxygen taken up by the blood.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Pathophysiology of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema (300words)

Pathophysiology of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema (300words)

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Describe the 5 types of autorhytmithmic cardiac cells/tissues that are involved in the cardiac conduction (nodal)...

Describe the 5 types of autorhytmithmic cardiac cells/tissues that are involved in the cardiac conduction (nodal) system

In: Anatomy and Physiology

As detailed as it can be describe what happened when the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous systems...

As detailed as it can be describe what happened when the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous systems are activated. Describe what happens to the body systems in each type of reaction.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Consider the brain areas and connections pictured in the simplified basal ganglia circuit. Parkinson’s disease results...

Consider the brain areas and connections pictured in the simplified basal ganglia circuit. Parkinson’s disease results from the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Dopamine can inhibit or excite neurons in the putamen, a sub-division of the striatum. Describe how this damage causes a chain of effects on activity in other basal ganglia areas and the structures they ultimately output to, and how this results in hypokinesia (reduced movements) in two different ways. Make sure to refer differentially to the ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ pathways.

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Thromboembolic disorders. A. Result in uncontrolled bleeding. B. Include thrombus formation, a clot in a broken...

Thromboembolic disorders.

A. Result in uncontrolled bleeding.

B. Include thrombus formation, a clot in a broken blood vessel

C. Include thrombus formation, a clot moving with the circulatory system

D Are caused by Vitamin K deficiency

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Specific cavity where the heart is located Aorta Tissue of the heart that attaches to the...

  1. Specific cavity where the heart is located
  1. Aorta
  1. Tissue of the heart that attaches to the diaphragm
  1. Bicuspid or mitral
  1. layer that immediately covers the heart muscle
  1. brachiocephalic
  1. middle later of the heart
  1. Chordae tendineae
  1. Area that grossly demonstrates the separation between the atria and ventricles
  1. Coronary sinus
  1. The two major vessels returning blood to the right atrium
  1. Coronary sulcus
  1. Vessel exiting the right ventricle
  1. Ductus arteriosus
  1. Vessel exiting the left ventricle
  1. Epicardium
  1. Vessels entering the left atrium
  1. Fibrous pericardium
  1. Type of blood carried in pulmonary veins
  1. Great cardiac vein
  1. The temporary shunt in the fetus between the aorta and pulmonary trunk
  1. Inferior vena cava
  1. The name of this structure (#11) in the adult
  1. Interventricular artery
  1. The Myocardial muscular ridges in the atria
  1. Ligamentum arteriosum
  1. The Myocardial muscular ridges in the ventricles
  1. Mediastinum
  1. Valve between the right atrium and ventricle
  • Moderator band
  1. Valve between the left atrium and ventricle
  1. Oxygenated
  1. Valve type between the ventricles and exiting blood vessel
  1. Papillary muscles
  1. Tendon structures that anchors the valve cusps
  1. Pectinate muscles
  1. Muscles that regulate valve position located in the ventricles
  1. Pulmonary trunk
  1. Tendinous band in the right ventricle that limits expansion
  1. Pulmonary veins

21. Three vessels that open into the right atrium (3)

  1. Semilunar

22. anterior coronary vessel traveling between ventricles

  1. Superior vena cava

23, largest of the veins located between atria and ventricles

  1. Trabeculae carneae

24. depression the great cardiac vein travels in

  1. Tricuspid

25. first branch off of aortic arch

  1. Visceral pericardium
  1. Myocardium
  1. None of these

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Describe the three important mechanisms for returning blood back to the heart during exercise. - respiratory...

  1. Describe the three important mechanisms for returning blood back to the heart during exercise.

- respiratory pump

- muscle pump

- valves in the veins

In: Anatomy and Physiology