(a) What is the difference between absolute fitness and relative fitness of an organism? [5 marks]
(b) Co-dominance is a type of non-Mendelian inheritance pattern that finds the traits expressed by the alleles to be equal in the phenotype. Give an example of a phenotype that is caused by co-dominant alleles in humans [5 marks]
(c) Coat colour in various animals is associated with their ability to hide from predator attacks. Animals with coat colours that match their environments more closely are more likely to survive than those with darker or lighter coats. What type of selection is this an example of? [5 marks] (d) In rural areas, peppered moths are almost all a very light colour. However, the same species of moths have a very dark in colour in industrial areas and very few mediumcoloured moths are seen in either location. What type of selection is this an example of?[5 marks]
You work in a laboratory that studies the molecular biology of tribbles. [Although tribbles are an alien life form, assume here that the molecular biology of tribbles is identical to that of eukaryotes on Earth.]
Your lab has a genomic library of tribble DNA, as well as a cDNA library made with mRNA extracted from whole tribbles. The lab also has a collection of live tribbles that can be used to isolate RNA or DNA, and a supply of fixed tribbles that can be stained for gene expression.
Your advisor provides you with a cloned 100 bp DNA fragment that represents part of the protein-coding region of a tribble gene. Using the tools described in the previous paragraph and the molecular biology techniques we have discussed in class, how would you accomplish each of the following aims? Note: try to come up with the simplest and modest direct approach that will give you the desired information.
A. Determine the amino acid sequence of the complete protein produced by that gene.
B. Determine whether or not the gene contains introns.
C. Determine whether the RNA produced by that gene experiences alternative splicing.
D. Determine the length of the mature mRNA(s) produced by the gene. This includes the UTRs and the poly-A tail.
E. Determine which cells in the tribble body do and do not express mRNA from this gene.
F. You discover a blood stain in the lab, and you want to determine whether it is human blood or tribble blood. How can you do this using the molecular biology tools described above?
Select from the terms below to answer questions #17-22. One term is not used.
R) Genomic imprinting
T) Sex-influenced inheritance
U) Maternal inheritance
V) Sex-limited inheritance
X) X-linked inheritance
Pattern baldness is controlled by two alleles: B, b. Females are bald if they are homozygous (BB) but males only need one allele B to be bald. This trait is an example of _________.
A mother passes on her mitochondrial genes to all of her children, and a father passes his mitochondrial genes to none of his children. This is an example of _________.
For some genetic disorders, the expression of the phenotype depends on whether an allele is inherited from the mother or father. An example in mice occurs with a gene for insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2): a heterozygous mouse will be dwarf if its normal allele comes from his mother and its mutant allele comes from his father. This is an example of _________.
In chickens, a single pair of alleles controls the feathering pattern of their neck and tail. Male chickens (roosters) may show cock or hen feathering; females (hens) only show hen feathering, never cock feathering. This is a case of _________.
Two recessive mutations that cause a “wingless” mutation in Drosophila are independently isolated. A researcher wonders whether the mutations are in the same gene or different genes, so he crosses the two strains. The outcome is that all offspring develop normal wings. Restoration of the wild-type phenotype is due to _________.
It has been discovered that some hereditary traits result from changes in the pattern of gene expression without alterations to the DNA sequence. A major mechanism for silencing gene expression is _________.
Researchers have been trying to gauge the impact of the graying of America. They report that currently 5% of the US population is over the age of 75 and it is expected that in ten years, 15% of the US population will be over the age of 75.
Will the shift result in higher mortality rates? Why or why not?
Please explain the following questions in detail:
1. The introduction of gall flies to control invasive knapweed in montana permitted an increase in the numbers of deer mice. Apart from an increase in hantavirus in the area, what other effects might this have on the local community.
2. Explain how you might set a field experiment to determine whether insect pests are affecting crop yields. Be careful to include appropriate treatments and controls.
Do you think it is important for the survival of the human species to understand evolution? List three different ways that evolution can affect you personally in your lifetime.
What is anemia? There are different reasons triggering anemia and one of them is the lack of some micronutrients. What is/are those micronutrients? Why does/do it/they cause anemia?
With the limitation in glenohumeral joint motion presented in Part E, case 1, describe how you would improve the passive ROM measurement by stretching one of the tissues you have identified in this activity. Provide your rationale, review the previous lab activities describing the important aspects of stretching a tissue.
Case 1: A patient examination reveals that the range of motion measurement for PASSIVE shoulder internal rotation is 30 degrees.
Explain the molecular processes occurring inside a transcription bubble
In morning glory flowers, plants with red flowers can be homozygous RR or heterozygous Rr. Plants that are rr have white flowers. How can you determine the genotype of a plant that has red flowers?
A. Cross the red plant with another red plant, and then cross the F1 population with each other to see if any white plants appear.
B. The phenotype reflects the genotype, so the plant must be homozygous for the trait.
C. Cross the red plant with a white plant to see how many red plants appear.
D. Cross the red plant with a white plant to see if any white plants appear.
E. Cross the red plant with another red plant to see if any white plants appear.
Imagine that we are studying the colour coat of a population of chamoix in the Alps. There are two morphs, white and dark brown, which we know to be genetically determined.
(a) We observe that the frequency of brown decreased quite substantially between 2010 and 2011. Give 4 different potential explanations for this decrease
(b) Imagine that we observe that the frequency of brown varies erratically over the next 4 years. Give two potential explanations for the changes in the frequency of brown
VENTILATION/RESPIRATION: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
1) Using Fick's law, explain why it is harder to breathe at the top of Mount Everest.
2) Using Fick's law, justify why the body surface of a Turbellaria makes a good respiratory surface for the worm.
3) Recall the gills seen in your crayfish, squid, and clam dissections. Was that tissue usually described as "feathery" or were they "dense" structures? From what you know of Fick's law, why does the characterization you use make sense?
4) What organisms have spiracles and why are they important for that organism?
5) How is air moved through tracheae in insects?
6) Order the airway passages and/or structures that air goes through starting from the nose to the blood stream in humans. (You should have at least five passages)
B) what is the main differences between those passage ways?
7) Provide at least two ways the anatomy of the lung helps to maximize Fick's law.
8) Describe how the diaphragm and muscles around the rib cage promote negative pressure breathing.
B) What type of animals use positive-pressure breathing and why might this be okay?
9) Describe at least two ways ventilation in birds is different from ventilation in humans.
You wish to develop an antitoxin therapeutic. Your plan is to create a molecule which will inactivate the ability of the toxin to penetrate the cell membrane, thus preventing the toxic effects. You decide to base the therapeutic on an aptamer design.