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This term we have studied the Digestive, Nervous, Urinary, Integumentary and Respiratory Systems. For your written...

This term we have studied the Digestive, Nervous, Urinary, Integumentary and Respiratory Systems. For your written assignment this week list the major body systems for these systems. Describe the normal function of each of these and where the anatomically lie in the body. Describe common pathology, including signs, systems and what may cause these disease or condition.

Lastly, what diagnostics are there to identify these diseases and conditions, and what treatments are currently available.

Solutions

Expert Solution

Digestive system

Anatomy will be given in diagram.

Normal functions

1. Mouth: * mastication -breakdown of food particle and get mixed with saliva

* Carbohydrate digestion starts here.

2.oesophagus : * transport food into the stomach.

3. Stomach : gastric juice secretion

*Limited absorption

* Protein digestion

4.small intestine : major site of absorption

* Protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestion

5. Large intestine:* water absorption

6.rectum : formation and storage of faeces.

7.anus: elimination of faeces.

8. Pancrease:insuline secrestion

9.liver: emulsification of fat.

MAJOR DISEASE CONDITION

1.GERD ( gastroesophagial reflux disease)

Symptoms:

*Burning sensation in the chest : usually after food intake and worsen on lying down.

* Belching , nausea, stomach discomfort , regurgitation

Cause: frequent acid reflux, sphincter paralysis,spicy food , alcohol

Diagnosis: endoscopy, xray, ambulatory acid probe test

Treatment: self management include avoiding spicy food ,elevate head of bed.

Medications : antacids

Proton pumb inhibitors

Other conditions: peptic ulcer, hemorrhoids,gastroenteritis

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Anatomy shown in diagram.

Normal functions:

1. Respiratory tract: conduct inhaled air into lungs  

Consist of: nostrils, trachea, pharynx,larynx,and bronchi

2. Respiratory system: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide into the blood.

Consist of bronchioli and lungs

DISEASE CONDITION

1.Asthma ( has an allergic history)

Symptoms: dry cough, wheezing, chest tightness,shortness of breath.

Cause:allergies to various substances.

Diagnosis: allergic history, Lung function test, chest xray.

Treatment:* rescue inhaler salbutamol

*controller inhaler steroids

Severe cases longer acting inhalers like formoterol,salmetrol,tiotropium

Other conditions are COPD, chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia

URINARY SYSTEM

Normal function:

1.Removal of waste products.

2. Fluid and electrolyte balance.

3. Secretion of substance like renin, erythropoietin

DISEASE CONDITION

1.Renal stones

Symptoms: loin to groin radiating pain.Sharp type of pain, blood in urine ,pain during urination,increased frequency of urination

Causes:increased creatine level ,uric acid level, decreased fluid intake.

diagnosis: ultrasound, intravenous plyelography,CT

Treatment: 1.increase water intake.

2.medication include analgesics NSAIDs and diuretics.

3.surgical removal of stones including laser therapy.

other conditions: urinary tract infections, urine incontinence,CKD

​​​​​​ NERVOUS SYSTEM

Normal functions:

1.control of homeostasis.

2.spinal reflex control

3.learning and memory

4.voluntary control of movement.

Disease conditions

1. Parkinson's disease

Symptoms: tremor ,sluggish movement( bradykinasia) ,mask like face, stopped posture,shuffling gait.

Causes: degenertaion of substantia nigra.

Diagnosis: based on symptoms and physical examinations and CT

Treatment: exercise, domapine supplements, anti depressants, tremor controlling drugs.

Other conditions: epilepsy, Bell's palsy,multiple sclerosis.


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