Question

In: Biology

Describe two (2) ways by which respiratory, nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems function to aid the...

Describe two (2) ways by which respiratory, nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems function to aid the human bodyto be immuned against Corona Virus

Solutions

Expert Solution

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM :
1.when we respire any foreign particle.. then immune system in the respiratory tract develop phagocytes, mast cells, Basophils, Etc.
2. It also produce memory cells to fight the next time pathogen entry of same type.

NERVOUS SYSTEM :
1. Pathogen material may penetrate the blood brain barrier and enter the nerve tissue. The phagocytic cells in the central nervous system are mainly of haematogenous origin. The number of such cells in the brain is very low. There are also few lymphocytes under normal circumstances. These cells circulate from the blood, through the vessel walls and into the perivascular spaces, along the perivascular channels and to the CSF and back to the blood. This circulation may increase enormously during inflammatory conditions.
2.This circulation may increase enormously during inflammatory conditions. In multiple sclerosis, the number of T-lymphocytes in the CSF is increased, corresponding to a preponderance of T-lymphocytes in the perivascular cell infiltrates in and around the lesions.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM :
1.Briefly, antigens taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs) are presented to T-cells through binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the APCs surface and co-stimulation by several critical molecules. Activated CD4 helper T-cells stimulate the release of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) that induce T-cell proliferation and activation, killer cell activity in CD8 suppressor T-cells and stimulation of B-cells to differentiate to plasma cells and produce antibodies. Cytokines are small molecules that assist the immune system by triggering, maintaining and amplifying immune responses.
2.In addition, immuno-surveillance is a process during which immune cells recognize and eliminate cancer cells and there is a dynamic interaction between immune system and cancer cells that influences all stages of tumorigenesis.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM :
1) The immune system comprises of gastrointestinal immune cells that secrete lymphocyte cells to attack foreign bodies. These gut immune cells and the microflora prevent the growth of microbes and fight pathogens and toxins that are ingested along with the food.
2. Bacteria help with digestion, but otherwise they stay on their side of the intestinal lining, and we stay on our side. But, in fact, there is a lot of interaction between the body’s immune system and bacteria in the gut.


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