Question

In: Biology

2. On a piece of paper, write the following systems: Integumentary Cardiovascular Immune Digestive Respiratory Excretory...

2. On a piece of paper, write the following systems:

Integumentary

Cardiovascular

Immune

Digestive

Respiratory

Excretory

Nervous

Sensory

Musculoskeletal

Endocrine

Reproductive

Then, tell me first, does this system derive from ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm, THEN, tell me what the effect(s) are of aging on that system.

For example: Integumentary derives from ectoderm and the effects of aging are that the skin thins and loses collagen resulting in lines and sagging skin.

Solutions

Expert Solution

Name of system

Derived from -

Effects of aging

Integumentary

Ectoderm

The collagen content decreases, moisture holding capacity decreases, leads to sagging and wrinkles.

Cardiovascular

Mesoderm

Heart walls and muscles become weak, more energy required to pump blood through the system, since vessels are not flexible

Immune

Endoderm and extra-embryonic mesoderm

T-cells fail to recognize antigens, not enough cytokines are produced, leads to recurrent colds and cough, accumulation of phlegm

Digestive

Endoderm

Villi of intestines decrease, enzymes required for digestion are not regularly produced

Respiratory

Endoderm

ventilation, gas exchange, compliance of lungs decrease

Excretory

Mesoderm

The ureters do not change much with age, but the bladder and the urethra change. The maximum volume of urine that the bladder can hold decreases.

Nervous

Ectoderm

Loss of nerve cells, atrophy, message passage rate decreases.

Sensory

Ectoderm

vision, hearing, smell, taste, and peripheral sensation; all of them generally decline.

Musculo-skeletal

Mesoderm

density of bones begins to diminish, more prone to fractures and injuries

Endocrine

Ectoderm and endoderm

Levels of most hormones decrease. Receptors lose sensitivity.

Reproductive

Mesoderm

Atrophy and thinning of genitals, lower levels of testosterone in males.


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