4. [30 pts] 20 liters of water at 20 bar and 100 °C are in a
variable volume container. 56,000 kJ of
heat are added to the system at constant pressure which causes an increase in both temperature
a. [4 pts] Draw a schematic of the process
b. [4 pts] Write the energy balance for this process and clearly state any assumptions:
c. [12 pts] What is the final volume of the container?
d. [8 pts] How much work in [kJ] is completed? Pay careful attention to your negative signs!
e. [2 pts] In one sentence explain your answer from Part D in
the context of the process described in
the problem statement and the heat that is added to the system.
Explain the principles of feedforward and cascade adjustments. What properties are important? When are the different forms appropriate? What are the benefits of using them?
To achieve efficient process operations, it is essential that appropriate process equipment is selected. For air separation based on cryogenic distillation, the selection of the wrong type of heat exchanger (HEX) can lead to sub-optimum plant performance, operability issues, and equipment failure. Briefly discuss the different types of heat exchangers available, and the suitability of the HEX for air separation units (ASUs) based on cryogenic distillation.
Elaborate how solid particles are separated from effluent of oil industry by using filter and thickener?
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is produced by reaction with a massive flow rate of 6000 kg / h and 99% pure calcium fluoride (CaF2) sulfuric acid. The reaction takes place with 97% conversion. The reaction equation is given below: CaF2 (solid) + H2SO4 (g) → CaSO4 (solid) + 2HF (g) Solid by-product, unreacted solid reagents and impurities are taken from the bottom of the reactor. The gas phase HF and unreacted H2SO4 are taken from the reactor and sent to the bottom of an absorption column. Aqueous acid solution containing 40% acid (HF + H2SO4) by weight is taken from the bottom of the column by absorbing 99% of HF and 99% of H2SO4 with the water sent over the column. 1% of the acid vapors emerge from the top of the column without absorption (Ca: 40; F: 19; H: 1,; S: 32; O: 16) a) Draw the block flow chart. b) Establish mass balance around each device and over the entire system.
Fluids of viscosities μ1=0.15 N‐s/m2 and μ2=0.18 N‐s/m2 are contained between two plates (each plate is 0.85 m2 in area). The thicknesses are h1=0.6 mm and h2=0.3 mm, respectively. Find the force F to make the upper plate move at a speed of 1.5 m/s. What is the fluid velocity at the interface between the two fluids?
A filtration component consists of a rectangular channel having dimensions H = 10 cm, W = 50 cm, and L = 100 cm, containing carbon pellets of diameter 5 mm, is modelled using the Ergun equation. Develop the pressure drop versus mass flowrate (for ?̇ in the range of 1 – 50 kg/s) characteristic for the following porosities (due to packing arrangement): ? = 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9. The fluid properties may be taken to be ρ = 1000 kg/m3 , μ = 1.0 × 10-3 Pa⸱s. What is the pressure drop when ?̇ = 50 kg/s? Is it better to operate three filters in series or in parallel? Why?
Report about life on Mars.
Chemical Weathering & Soil Erosion
a) How is carbonic acid (H2CO3) formed in
b) What controls the soil formation?
c) Is soil erosion a natural process or primarily the result of inappropriate land use by people? Explain.
Oxygen, kept at a pressure of 10.1 kPa, is heated to a temperature of 4000 K. Determine the relative amounts of diatomic and monatomic oxygen that are present after the heating
You have 5 mL of vinegar in a flask and 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. You titrate exactly 36.9 mL of 0.1 mol/L NaOH from a burette directly into the flask which gives you a pale pink color. This means the solution has reached neutralization. Calculate n of the NaOH.
Suppose 0.22 L of 0.5 mol/L NaOH solution was titrated with 5 L of HCl using phenolphthalein indicator. Calculate the amount of the base and the acid that were used to reach the neutralization point.
50 L of 2.0 mol/L Hydrochloric acid is titrated with sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride. How many moles of sodium hydroxide are consumed in this reaction?
You have 5 mL of vinegar in a flask and 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. You titrate exactly 36.9 mL of 0.1 mol/L NaOH from a burette directly into the flask which gives you a pale pink color. This means the solution has reached neutralization. Calculate C of the vinegar in mol/L.
00 L of 5 mol/L NaOH are required to fully titrate a 50 L solution of HCl. What is the initial concentration of the acid?
57. Name five observed and/or potential consequences of global warming.
Consider the following data concerning an acetic acid/benzene mixture at 50 a C. The vapor pressure of pure benzene is 35.62 kPa at this temperature while pure acetic acid has a vapor pressure of 7.34 kPa. A 0.2973 mole fraction acetic acid solution is in equilibrium with a vapor that has a partial pressure of 28.16 kPa for benzene and 3.31 kPa for acetic acid.
What are the Raoult's law activity coefficients for solute and solvent in this system?
Is the heat of mixing in this system most likely zero, positive , or negative? Explain
If the partial pressure of solute is 0.484 kPa for a 0.0160 mole fraction acetic acid solution, what value for the Henry's law constant on the mole fraction scale would you predict for this solute in this solvent? You can assuming that the concentration of acetic acid is low enough that you are in the limiting law region.