Questions
Material Balance, Water removal A 2000 kg batch of pharmaceutical-grade powder containing 7.5% by weight water...

Material Balance, Water removal
A 2000 kg batch of pharmaceutical-grade powder containing 7.5% by weight water is dried in a drier.
After drying, 95% of the water that enters with the wet powder will have been removed from the powder.
a. Draw a diagram of the process. Label ALL streams and indicate stream compositions. Use proper
notations and units.
b. State a basis.
c. Perform an overall material balance and a material balance for each species.
d. Calculate the final batch composition in wt.%
e. Calculate the final weight of the dried powder (lbm) and the weight of the water removed (lbm).

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It is desired to use a rotary vacuum filter to separate slurry containing 20 kg of...

It is desired to use a rotary vacuum filter to separate slurry containing 20 kg of water per kilogram of solid material. Tests on the rotary filter at the conditions to be used for the filtration have indicated that the dimensionless ratio α/β' is 0.6 and 19 kg of filtrate (not including wash water) is obtained for each 27.8 kg of slurry. The temperature and pressure of the surroundings are 25 oC and 1 atm, respectively. The pressure drop to be maintained by the vacuum pump is 45 kPa. The fraction of the drum area submerged in the slurry is 0.3 and the fraction of the drum area available for suction is 0.1. On the basis of the following assumptions, estimate the kilowatt rating of the motor necessary to operate the vacuum pump if the filter handles 16000 kg/h of slurry. Assumptions are as follows:

Resistance of the filter medium is negligible.

Effects of air leakage are included in the value given for α/β'.

The value of β' is based on the temperature and pressure of the ambient air.

The filter removes all the solids from the slurry.

The vacuum pump operates isentropically with an overall efficiency of 50 percent for the pump and motor.

The ratio of Cp/Cv remains constant at a value of 1.4.

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In this activity, you will develop an experimental procedure to solve a problem. Consider the following...

In this activity, you will develop an experimental procedure to solve a problem. Consider the following scenario: You are the manager of a chemical stockroom, and find a bottle containing approximately one liter of a clear and colorless solution of unknown identity and concentration. Your only clue to its identity is that it was found between bottles of silver fluoride and sodium fluoride, so it is likely an aqueous solution of one of those two compounds. You will need to develop a procedure to determine the following: a) The identity of the unknown solution b) The concentration of the unknown solution Write out a precise procedure, which includes all glassware, reagents, and steps. You will also need to write the calculations that you would need to determine the concentration of the solution. Assume that you have access to all of the equipment that you used in the chemistry lab this semester and any reagent you might need.

How would I find the concentration if the 1L bottle would be sodium fluoride or NaF?

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In using my propane powered grill the other day (nice day, 65°F) I noticed the metal...

In using my propane powered grill the other day (nice day, 65°F) I noticed the metal cylinder holding the propane had frost forming on it. Why?

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7. Adsorption of an organic solute on activated silica gel gave the following data after equilibrium....

7. Adsorption of an organic solute on activated silica gel gave the following data after equilibrium. S (mg cm-3) 0.139 0.089 0.066 0.047 0.037 Ca (mg/g) 0.03 0.026 0.0225 0.021 0.018 Fit the data to an adsorption isotherm and calculate the constants.

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UESTION ONE: CASE STUDY Title: Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Kanzo Metropolitan Area, Sikaman Kanzo...

UESTION ONE: CASE STUDY
Title: Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Kanzo Metropolitan Area, Sikaman
Kanzo is a metropolitan area in Sikaman, a least developed country in West Africa, which has experienced rapid urbanisation over the past six decades. The population of Kanzo in 1965 was 45,000, which tripled in two decades, and further reached 1.2 million in the year 2005. The National Development Planning Council (NDPC), headquartered in Kanzo has estimated that the city’s population surpassed the threshold of 5 million in 2019. City authorities have become worried, considering the current rate of urbanisation pegged at 3 percent per annum. The population growth coupled with the rapid expansion of the city has resulted in an urban sprawl and uncontrolled expansion from the adjourning municipalities. Also, there has been an increased crowding resulting in higher occupancy ratios in existing housing units, and the infilling of vacant plots in existing residential areas. According to the NDPC, over 70 percent of the population of Kanzo live in low income, high density population areas which account for many of the slums in the city and its peripheral environs.
Kanzo generates over 3,000 tons of solid waste per day and only about 60 percent is collected by the waste management organisations contracted through a public private partnership (PPP) arrangement. Of these, the organic waste, made up of kitchen waste including food leftovers, rotten fruits, vegetables, leaves, crop residues, animal excreta and bones constitute 65-70% whiles industrial waste made up of plastics, glass, metals, and paper account for the remaining 30-35%. The high organic and moisture contents left in the open at prevailing high temperatures require frequent removals, which place additional burden on an over strained collection system. Experts have warned that the delays and inefficiencies in the solid waste collection system in Kanzo, is what has accounted for the high incidence of cholera, typhoid fever, malaria, and other health hazards witnessed in the metropolis. Especially in low income areas where the waste is not segregated but mixed due to inadequate sanitation facilities, the problem becomes more compounded.
The lack of proper land use planning in Kanzo, also hinders effective sanitation and waste management practices. As reported in the April 9, 2019 edition of the Daily Mail Newspaper, the lack of comprehensive planning, the absence of planning controls, week enforcement of bye-laws, indiscipline, difficulty to apply service charges, limited number of waste management organisations, and the lack of an adequate and well maintained infrastructure in the urban, and industrial development processes is responsible Kanzo’s environmental problems. The publication further outlines that the poor layouts, untarred and narrow nature of the road networks particularly in slums, make it difficult for waste collection vehicles to reach some parts of the city compound the situation. This uncontrolled urbanisation has resulted in an increase in the average travel distance to be covered by collection vehicles and additional cost to waste management.
In January, 2020, resident associations from all sub-metropolitan areas of Kanzo staged a mammoth demonstration at the city centre and presented a petition to the Office of the Mayor of Kanzo, Dr. E.M Hygiene, to express their concerns on the unsustainable manner and poor solid waste management system, as well as the environmental risks associated with the practice.
REQUIRED:
i. Identify any four (4) major causes of the poor solid waste management and sanitation problems
confronting the Kanzo Metropolitan Area.
  
ii. Discuss any three (3) environmental risks which the poor solid waste management practices may pose to residents of Kanzo and suggest what the residents can do to help solve the problem.
iii. From the above case, use your knowledge in waste management to recommend three (3) sustainable ways by which the City Authorities can solve this problem.

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Design a sulfuric acid plant with a capacity of 8 ton per day. The product is...

Design a sulfuric acid plant with a capacity of 8 ton per day. The product is to have a purity of 96% acid. Label all streams

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A solution of NaNO3 in water contains 18% by weight of NaNO3. The amount of NaNO3...

A solution of NaNO3 in water contains 18% by weight of NaNO3. The amount of NaNO3 crystals produced from 1550 kg of feed solution is 166 kg and the 48.3% of water evaporated and the remaining solution is cooled to 293K. What is the solubility of NaNO3 in kg per 1000 kg of water at 293 K?

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what is the SOP for continuous fluidized bed dryer? and how to do the maintenance and...

what is the SOP for continuous fluidized bed dryer? and how to do the maintenance and cleaning?

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An absorption column (1st unit) and a stripping tower (2nd unit) are used in a separation...

An absorption column (1st unit) and a stripping tower (2nd unit) are used in a separation process
to separate gas mixtures that contains 35 mol% CO2 and the balance methane (CH4). The gas
mixture is fed to the bottom of absorption column where in the column, the gas mixture is
contacted with a recycled solvent. The contacting solvent stream contains 0.45 mol% dissolved
CO2 in methanol (CH3OH), which is recycled from the bottom of the stripping tower and enters
the absorption column at the top. The product gas stream leaving the top of absorption column
contains 1 mol% CO2 and 99 mol% methanol, where all methanol fed to the column exits in
this stream.
The liquid bottom stream of the absorption column which is rich in CO2 is fed to the top of the
stripping tower while a stream of nitrogen gas at a flow rate of 100 mol/h is fed to the bottom.
90% of carbon dioxide in the liquid solvent fed to the stripping tower is stripped off and exits
the tower together with the entire nitrogen fed. This stream is released to the atmosphere
through a stack. As mentioned above, the liquid stream leaving the stripping tower is the
recycled solvent stream of CO2 –methanol solution fed to the absorption column.
There are two assumptions made in this separation process where firstly, no methanol enters
as vapor phase in both columns as it is assumed to be non-volatile. Another assumption is that
nitrogen is insoluble in methanol. By taking 100 mol/h of gas mixture fed to the absorption
column as the basis of calculation,
a) With the support of a complete process flow chart, determine all flow rates and
compositions entering and leaving the stripping tower.

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the explain application of the stability of the phases

the explain application of the stability of the phases

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(b) Explain the operating principles of a jaw crusher and a gyratory crusher. Under what circumstances...

(b) Explain the operating principles of a jaw crusher and a gyratory crusher. Under what circumstances would you consider replacing the jaw crusher in your process flowsheet with a gyratory crusher?

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Hi there! I can not find solution of Octave Levenspiel Chapter 26. I need it immediately....

Hi there! I can not find solution of Octave Levenspiel Chapter 26. I need it immediately. Can you please help me!Thank you.

A solid feed consisting of

20 wt% of 1-mm particles and smaller

30 wt% of 2-mm particles

50 wt% of 4-mm particles

passes through a rotating tubular reactor somewhat like a cement kiln where it reacts with gas to give a hard nonfriable solid product (SCMI reaction control, T = 4 h for 4-mm particles).

26.3. Find the residence time needed for 100% conversion of solids.

26.4. Find the mean conversion of the solids for a residence time of 15 min.

26.5. Particles of uniform size are 60% converted on the average (shrinking core model with reaction controlling) when flowing through a single fluidized bed. If the reactor is made twice as large but contains the same amount of solids and with the same gas environment what would be the conversion of solids?

26.6. Solids of unchanging size, R = 0.3 mm, are reacted with gas in a steady flow bench scale fluidized reactor with the following result. F, = 10 gmlsec, W = 1000 gm, X, = 0.75 Also, the conversion is strongly temperature-sensitive suggesting that the reaction step is rate-controlling. Design a commercial sized fluidized bed reactor (find W) to treat 4 metric tonslhr of solid feed of size R = 0.3 mm to 98% conversion.

26.7. Solve Example 26.3 with the following modification: the kinetics of the reaction is ash diffusion controlled with T(R = 100 ~m=) 1 0 min.

26.8. Repeat Example 26.4 if twice the stoichiometric ratio of gas to solid, still at C,,, is fed to the reactor.

26.9. Repeat Example 26.4 if the gas is assumed to pass in plug flow through the reactor.

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In a continuous distillation of a mixture of 40% A and 60% B with a flow...

In a continuous distillation of a mixture of 40% A and 60% B with a flow rate of 10,000 kmol / hour, the volatile component composition is decomposed to 90% in distillate and 4% in boiler. Feeding is ¼ steam, ¾ liquid and partial condenser is used in the system.
a) Minimum ideal number of steps,
b) Minimum riflax rate,
c) Ideal stage number when the actual riflax ratio is 4.5 times the minimum value
d) Enrichment and peeling regions liquid and vapor flow rates (L, V, ?̅, ?̅),
e) If the average efficiency of the column is 0.5, the number of real steps,
f) Find the actual number of steps when n kad = 0.65

x 0 0.05 0.15 0.30 0.50 0.70 0.88
y 0 0.40 0.60 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.90

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A triple effect forward-feed evaporator is used to concentrate 6 kg/s of 14% mass fraction of...

A triple effect forward-feed evaporator is used to concentrate 6 kg/s of 14% mass fraction of caustic soda at 75C to 47% mass fraction. Steam input in first effect is 150C. Vapour from the third effect is 39C at 7kPa. Overall heat transfer coefficient in effect 1, U1 is 3000 W/m2 K, effect 2, U2 is 2000 W/m2 K and effect 3, U3 is 1250 W/m2 K.

Find boiling point elevation in each effect.

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