Briefly, describe the role that the small angle grain boundaries play in increasing the ductility of a cold-worked and annealed metal in maximum 150 words. Every additional extra use of a verb after 150 words will reduce the score of the question by one point.

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1)
what is standard procedure for boyle's porosity

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How can i determine the Temperature, volume and heat transfer for single adiabatic PFR for first order reaction? What is the steps that i should use ?

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5 kg of butane (C4H10), contained in a piston-cylinder device
undergoes a process from P1 = 5 MPa, T1 = 500 K to P2 = 3 MPa and
T2 = 450 K during which the relationship between pressure and
specific volume is PVn = C.

a. Using the data from Generalized Compressibility chart, determine
the amount of work done during the process.

b. If butane is assumed an ideal gas, how would you compare the
work done during the process to the one that you have obtained
above.

QUESTION 9 (PO2, CO2, C6)

For a system that contains butane as described in the above
question (QUESTION 8), by making appropriate assumptions,
investigate and discuss the effect of polytopic exponent on work
boundary and heat transfer, for the system to reach the same:

a. final volume. b. final pressure ( 25 marks )

PLEASE ANSWER QUESTION 9 ACCORDING TO GIVEN MARKS

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A one-shell pass, two-tube pass heat exchanger (1-2) is to cool
at mh= 1.5 kg/s

oil (Cph = 2100 J/kg. oC) from Th,in = 90 oC to Th,out = 40 oC with
water (Cpc = 4180

J/kg.oC) entering at Tc,in = 19 oC and mc = 1 kg/s. The overall
heat transfer

coefficient Um is 250 W/m2.oC. Design the heat exchanger requires
for the

process by using 2.5 cm (OD), 2.2 cm (ID) and 5.5 m long tubes. How
will the design values change if the two-shell pass, four-tube pass
exchanger (2-4) is

designed? Discuss your results.

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study of the internal combustion engines (IC
Engines)

Ex 6: Need to define the following working process;

1. Intake

2. Compression

3. Expansion

4. Exhaust

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(a) Describe shelf-life determination by direct
method.

(b) Describe shelf-life calculation by indirect method
of accelerated tests

(c) Mention seven measures to be considered for
shelf-life determination.

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1-What are simulation fluid packages? Select any four fluid packages and critically explain the advantages and disadvantages on performing the simulation process.

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1. What is the compression factor of the ideal gas? When
calculating the second virial coefficient term for hydrogen, how
much difference is it from the ideal gas?

What is the difference in the case of water vapor? Write the
calculation process in detail.

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4.25 mol Cl2 reacted with 1.49 mol NaOH. Give the mass
selectivity (gNaClO/gNaCl). Degree of completion is 0.75.

Cl2 + 2NaOH--> NaClO + NaCl + H2O

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One kilogram of boiling water is vaporized to steam at 100 kPa in a frictionless piston-and-cylinder device. Using the Steam Tables, answer the following:

- Is the heat needed to vaporize the water to steam equal to the change in enthalpy? Or TDS?
- To calculate the work done by the steam, is the first law of thermodynamics equation or the general equation for work applicable?
- Is the entropy generation equal to the change in entropy of the water?
- Does the heat required for the vaporization of boiling water greater than the work done?

Support your answers with calculations and explanations.

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A mixture of propane, butane and pentane are to be separated in a distillation column. Feed= Propane - 20 wt % Butane - 50 wt% Pentane - 30wt%. Top=Propane – 93 wt% Butane - 7 wt% Pentane – 0 wt%. Bottom=Propane - ?? wt % Butane - ?? wt% Pentane - 38 wt%. The weight % values shown are compositions. The total feedrate is 5000 kg hr-1. ALL the pentane is recovered in the bottom product, (comprising 38 wt% of the composition of that stream), determine the following:

(a) The total mass flowrates of each of the top and bottom product streams.

(b) The percentage recovery of the propane in the top product

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In one process there is a throttle valve through which water vapor is passed in a superheated state, the valve operates in a steady state at P = 100 kPa and T = 250 ºC. The pressure of the fluid leaving the valve is 50 kPa. An engineer suggested replacing the valve with a turbine, this in order to get a turbine job. I. Determine the physical state of the fluid leaving the valve and the temperature. II.Determine the speed at which entropy is generated in the valve per kilogram of water that enters.III.Determine the maximum work that can be produced by a turbine per kilogram of water that enters if the current that enters the turbine is identical to the current entering the valve and the outlet pressure of the turbine is P = 50 kPa.

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An ideal benzene toluene mixture contains 6 moles of benzene and 4 moles of toluene at 25 ° C. The saturated vapor pressure of pure benzene at 25 ° C is 96 Torr, the saturated vapor pressure of pure toluene is 29 Torr. Initially, the mixture at 760 Torr pressure is only liquid. The total pressure is then slowly reduced to a pressure of 60 Torr. Calculate the composition of liquid phase and vapor phase, and calculate liquid and vapor mole fractions.

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A 15% Na2SO4 solution is fed at a rate of 5.5 kg/min into a mixer which initially holds 45.5 kg of a 50-50 mixture of Na2SO4 and water. The exit solution leaves the mixer at a rate of 4.5 kg /min. Assuming uniform mixing, write the required mass balances and calculate the weight fraction of Na2SO4 in the mixer at the end of 10 min using 4th order Runge-Kutta Method by taking Δt= 0.5 min.

Solve the question using Excel

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