1. respiratory system
2. cardiovascular system
3. nervous system
4. endocrine system
5. urinary System
1)The nurse administer oxygen at 5litre/min via nasal cannula to a client with emphysema. For which Clinical indicators should the nurse closely observe the patient ?
a) cyanosis and lethargy
b) tachycardia and anxiety
c) decreased respiration and drowsiness
d) hyperemia and increased respiration.
Correct answer is option c, that is decreased respiration and drowsiness.
Emphysema is a type of COPD. The abnormal presence of air in tissue or cavities of the body. In pulmonary emphysema distension of alveoli cause intervening walls are broken down and bullae to form on the lung surface and cause distension of the bronchioles and loss of elasticity. So inspired air can not be expired, making breathing difficult .
In emphysema cases unable to receive enough oxygen unless provided in a higher concentration on a long term basis. As stated above that nasal cannulas are used, they are capable of delivering 24% to 44% of oxygen at 1-6L/min
Administer oxygen for long term around 12 - 25 hours may cause hypercapnea that is carbon dioxide retention due to oxygen toxicity. This cause symptoms such as drowsiness ,decreased respiration, head ache and some times death.
2)A positive tuberculin test is indicated by
a) 1-3mm in diameter
b) 7-9mm in diameter
c) 4-6mm in diameter
d) 10mm or more in diameter
The correct answer is option d, that is 10mm or more in diameter.
Tuberculin skin test is one of the important and widely used test for diagnosis of tuberculosis. 1ml of purified protein derivative will be injected intradermally and will read 48 to 72 hours later. The result will be depend upon the medical risk factors and site of induration .
5mm or more positive in
:recent contact with active TB cases
:person with nodular and fibrotic changes in X-ray
:organ transplant recipient and immunosuppressed patient
10 my or more positive in
:recent arrival from high prevalence country
:IV drug abusers
:mycobacterial lab personal
:children less than 4 years of age
15mm or more
:person with no known risk of TB
1)S2 heart sound corresponds to ____?
a) clossure of aortic and pulmonary valve
b) closure of aortic valve
C) closure of the mitral and trivialise valve
d) closure of the mitral valve
Correct answer is option a, that is closure of aortic and pulmonary valve
Normal heart sound is S1 and S2. S1 is the first heart sound(LUBB)produced by closure of tricuspid and mitral valve and S2 sound is the second heart sound (DUBB) produced by closure of semilunar valve (aortic and pulmonic valve.
2)which of the following complication occur within 24 hours after sustaining an MI?
a) pulmonary embolism
b) heart failure
c) ventricular aneurysm
d) atrial septa defect
The correct answer is option c, that is ventricular aneurysm
Complications associated with MI is
:sudden death occurs with in fist hour
:ventricular aneurysm and ruptured papillary muscles with in 24 hours
:cardiogenic shock 24 hrs to 7 days
:cardiac rupture within 5-7days
:heart failure with in few days
:thromboembolism with in 3 weeks
1)if a nurse notice colorless drainage on dressing after surgery of brain tumor, then which of the following is the prompt nursing action?
a) notify the physician
b) elevate the head of the bed
d) monitor the patient continuously
The correct answer is option a ,colorless drainage from dressing after surgery of brain tumor is the indication of presence of CSF, so it should reported to physician immediately .Other actions are not a prompt action
2)Basic nursing measures in the care of patient with viral encephalitis
a) providing comfort measures
b) monitoring cardiac output
C) administer narcotic
d) administer amohotericin B
The correct answer is option a, providing comfort measures, it will directed to head ache ,include dimmed light, limited noise and analgesics are basic care for encephalitis .Other options are not a basic measures for viral encephalitis .
1)short stature, secondary to growth hormone deficiency is associated with
a) height age is equal to bone age
b) normal body proportion
c) Low birth weight
d) normal epiphyseal developments
Correct answer is option b, normal body proportion
GHD babies born AGA not SGA
:they have maintained body proportion that is proportionate short stature.
:disproportionate SS is seen In
US is greater than LS___Richets and achondroplasia.
US is less than LS __spondylo epiphyseal displasia
GHD__delayed bone age but appropriated for height age
2)Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, mean glucose levels
a) over 2 days
b) over 15 days
c) over 90 days
d) over 30 days
The correct answer is option c, that is over 90days
HbA1c is test tells average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months(90 days). It measures how much glucose is bound to RBC.
1)amount of blood filtered in renal capsule per minute is known as ___
b) urine per minute
c) tidal volume
d) blood flow per minute
Correct answer is option a, GFR is used to test how well the kidneys are working. It estimate how much amount of blood passess through the glomeruli each minute. Normal GFR is 90 to 120 ml/min/1.73m²
2)triad symptoms in nephritis syndrome include all, EXCEPT
c) weight loss
The correct answer is option c, weight loss
Nephrotic syndrome is defined by triad of clinical feature like edema, proteinuria and hypoalbumenemia. Weight gain is happened in nephrotic syndrome not weight loss.