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In: Biology

Homeostasis and Osmoregulation. Then research osmoregulation in Salmon, which spend part of their lives in salt...

Homeostasis and Osmoregulation. Then research osmoregulation in Salmon, which spend part of their lives in salt water and part in fresh water. To complete this assignment prepare a document that includes the following 1) a definition of homeostasis and osmoregulation (2) an explanation of how a stimulus, receptor and effector work together to maintain homeostasis and (3) a brief explanation of osmoregulation in salmon in both fresh water and salt water

Solutions

Expert Solution

1. Maintenance of the stable environment inside the body is known as homeostasis. Homeostasis is controlled by various systems which detect the deviations and integrates the information to make proper adjustments and to restore the stable environment. The homeostatic control system is grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic controls.

Osmoregulation is process of maintenance of body fluids at constant osmotic pressure regulating the water and salt concentrations.

2. Homeostasis mechanism have three components known as receptor, integrating center, and effector. The stimulus from environment is recognized by the receptor and sends the information to integration center. The integration center in turn stimulates the effector to respond to the stimulus.

3. Osmoregulation in Salmon is key for itsa survival in fresh water or salt water. The salt concentration in sea water is 3 times higher than concentration of salts in body fluids of Salmon. To balance the influx of NaCl into body, salmon drinks more water in oceans.

in fresh water the concnetration of salts in low and the water is dilute than body fluids. Therefore, excess salts are lost to fresh water environment and moreover salmon does not drink water in fresh water environment to main appropriate salt concentrations. Therefore, body fluids are concentrated than surrounding fresh water.

Salmon contains special enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP in its gill epithelial membrane cells and the released energy or ATP is used for active transport of both Na+ and Cl- against their concentration gradients. In the ocean, the Na+-Cl- ATPase pumps the Na+ and Cl- ions out of the salmon's blood into the salt water flowing over the gills. This results in losing of NaCl to the ocean waters to offsett the continuous influx of NaCl.

In fresh water, these same Na+-Cl- ATPase molecules Na+ and Cl- ions are pumped out of the water flowing over the gills into the salmon's blood. This balances the continuous loss of NaCl through diffusion so that the salmon in fresh water habitats is maintained with low NaCl concentrations.


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