In: Statistics and Probability

- Correlation doesn’t imply causation. Discuss this and illustrate this point with an example from a psychology majors perspective.

**Correlation** is a statistical technique which
tells us how strongly the pair of variables are linearly related
and change together. It does not tell us why and how behind the
relationship but it just says the relationship exists(
Mathematically).

*Ice cream sales is correlated with homicides in New
York (Study)*

As the sales of ice cream rise and fall, so do the number of homicides. Does the consumption of ice cream causing the death of the people?

No. Two things are correlated doesn’t mean one causes other.

**Correlation does not mean causality or in our example,
ice cream is not causing the death of people.**

When 2 unrelated things tied together, so these can be either bound by causality or correlation.

In Majority of the cases correlation, are just because of the coincidences. Just because it seems like one factor is influencing the other, it doesn’t mean that it’s actually does.

Correlation is something which we think, when we can’t see under the covers. So the less the information we have the more we are forced to observe correlations. Similarly the more information we have the more transparent things will become and the more we will be able to see the actual casual relationships.

Does correlation imply causation? Discuss in your own words.

true or false, correlation doesn't imply causation

11. If “correlation does not imply causation,” what does it
imply?
12. What are some of the possible reasons for large correlations
between a pair of variables, X and Y?
17.What assumptions are required for a correlation to be a valid
description of the relation between X and Y?

What is the difference between correlation and causation? Offer
an example of each as it relates to healthcare operations
management. Then explain how these concepts are important in
identifying and prioritizing operational improvement
opportunities.

1. Give an example of correlation and causation in which the
explanatory variable directly causes a change in the response
variable.
2. Next, give an example of correlation and non-causation in
which the two variables are correlated but no direct
cause-and-effect relationship exists between the two variables.

Incarceration rates vary from state to state. We must remember
that correlation is not causation, but we can ask: “What state
level factors might be associated with the state incarceration
rate?”
Before you look at the data below, state appropriate null and
research hypotheses concerning the relationship between
Incarceration Rate and Median State Income.
Using the data below, calculate:
The prediction equation (least squares line)
The Coefficient of Determination
Pearson's r
Predicted Incarceration Rate for Nebraska based on regression
analysis...

Incarceration rates vary from state to state. We must remember
that correlation is not causation, but we can ask: “What state
level factors might be associated with the state incarceration
rate?”
Before you look at the data below, state appropriate null and
research hypotheses concerning the relationship between
Incarceration Rate and Median State Income.
Using the data below, calculate:
The prediction equation (least squares
line)
The Coefficient of Determination
Pearson's r
Predicted Incarceration Rate for Nebraska based on
regression analysis...

critically discuss characteristics of service,
illustrate your understanding by relevant example

Discuss Schumpeter’s concept of creative destruction. Illustrate
with an example, or examples, of digital disruption in a knowledge
industry. What are some public policy implications?

1. Illustrate and discuss the concept of intermediate, or
transitional, fossils, using Tiktaalik as an example. Finally,
explain why transitional or intermediate fossils like that of
Tiktaalik are so important for the study of evolution.
2. Define and illustrate the concept of homology using the
vertebrate forelimb as an example. Next, explain why vertebrate
forelimbs are so different in spite of their underlying structural
similarity. Explain the significance of developmental homologies to
our understanding of descent with modification. Now, illustrate...

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