Explain the hydrophobic effect and its role in binary-code designed 4-helix bundles. Thank you
The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in aqueous solution and exclude water molecules. The word hydrophobic literally means "water-fearing", and it describes the segregation of water and nonpolar substances, which maximizes hydrogen bonding between molecules of water and minimizes the area of contact between water and nonpolar molecules. It is responsible for effects related to biology, including: cell membranes and vesicles formation, protein folding, insertion of membrane proteins into the nonpolar lipid environment and protein-small molecule associations. The hydrophobic effect is considered to be the major driving force for the folding of globular proteins. It results in the burial of the hydrophobic residues in the core of the protein.
Role of hydrophobic effect in binary-code designed 4-helix bundles: The energetically favorable effect of shielding hydrophobic residues from aqueous solvent contributes significantly toward the stability of a folded protein. Exclusion of hydrophobic residues from solvent may also play a major role in specifying the overall shape, or fold, of a protein.