In: Chemistry

Describe the role of ozone in the atmosphere & analyze the kinetics of ozone in the troposphere.

Role of ozone in atmosphere :

The ozone molecules in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are chemically identical, because they all consist of three oxygen atoms and have the chemical formula O3. However, they have very different roles in the atmosphere and very different effects on humans and other living beings. Stratospheric ozone (sometimes referred to as "good ozone") plays a beneficial role by absorbing most of the biologically damaging ultraviolet sunlight (called UV-B), allowing only a small amount to reach the Earth's surface. The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone creates a source of heat, which actually forms the stratosphere itself (a region in which the temperature rises as one goes to higher altitudes). Ozone thus plays a key role in the temperature structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Without the filtering action of the ozone layer, more of the Sun's UV-B radiation would penetrate the atmosphere and would reach the Earth's surface. Many experimental studies of plants and animals and clinical studies of humans have shown the harmful effects of excessive exposure to UV-B radiation.

At the Earth's surface, ozone comes into direct contact with life-forms and displays its destructive side (hence, it is often called "bad ozone"). Because ozone reacts strongly with other molecules, high levels of ozone are toxic to living systems.

Kinetics :

The steppwise reactions are :

In this mechanism, O2 undergoes photodissociation to form two oxygen atoms in equation (1) using light of energy E=hn. An oxygen atom then combines with an oxygen molecule in equation (2) to produce ozone. In equation (2), M is any third body in the atmosphere (likely N2 or O2) that carries away the excess energy and allows the ozone to remain intact. Thus in simplistic terms, O3 is produced by reaction (1) followed by (2). Ozone appears to be lost via reactions (3) and (4). However, reaction (3) does not represent a true loss for ozone because O atoms formed in (3) can reform O3 via reaction (2).

Order of the reaction :

Looking at each elementary reaction, we would expect that reaction (1) follows first order kinetics, reaction (2) follows third order kinetics, reaction (3) follows first order kinetics and reaction (4) follows second order kinetics. Note that reaction (2) requires three species to come together at the same time, i.e. it is a termolecular reaction. If we look at the relative concentration of species in the atmosphere, O2 and M (= O2 + N2) have much higher concentrations than O and O3, and so they can be considered to be essentially constant over time. Thus, we might expect reaction (1) to obey zero order kinetics (a “pseudo” zero order reaction) and reaction (2) to obey first order kinetics (“pseudo” first order reaction).

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 4.7
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an excess level. The mean of 26 samples is 5.0 ppm with
a standard deviation of 0.9. Does the data support the claim at the
0.05 level? Assume the population distribution is approximately
normal. Step 5 of 5: Make the decision to reject or fail to...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 4.7
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an excess level. The mean of 26 samples is 5.0 ppm with
a standard deviation of 0.9. Does the data support the claim at the
0.05 level? Assume the population distribution is approximately
normal. Step 4 of 5: Determine the decision rule for rejecting the
null...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 7.5
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an excess level. The mean of 980 samples is 7.6 ppm.
Assume a population standard deviation of 1.1. Does the data
support the researcher's claim at the 0.02 level? a) State the null
and alternative hypothesis. b) test statistic c) One tailed or two
tailed? d)...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 4.5
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is not at a normal level. The mean of 1020 samples is 4.4
ppm. Assume a population standard deviation of 1.2. Does the data
support the researcher's claim at the 0.05 level?
Step 1 of 6: State the null and alternative hypotheses.
Step 2 of 6: Find the...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 7.0
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is not at a normal level. The mean of 1000 samples is 6.9
ppm. Assume a population standard deviation of 1.2. Does the data
support the researcher's claim at the 0.02 level?
Step 1 of 5 : State the null and alternative hypotheses.
Step 2 of 5 : Find...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 5.5
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an excess level. The mean of 6 samples is 5.9 ppm with
a variance of 0.49. Does the data support the claim at the 0.05
level? Assume the population distribution is approximately
normal.
Step 2 of 5 : Find the value of the test statistic. Round...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 6.6
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an excess level. The mean of 14 samples is 6.7 ppm with
a standard deviation of 1.1. Does the data support the claim at the
0.05 level? Assume the population distribution is approximately
normal. Step 1 of 5 : State the null and alternative
hypotheses.

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 7.77.7
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an insufficient level. The mean of 840840 samples is
7.67.6 ppm. Assume a population standard deviation of 1.21.2. Does
the data support the researcher's claim at the 0.10.1 level?
Step 1 of 6: State the null and alternative hypotheses.
step 2: find the test statistic
step...

Our environment is very sensitive to the amount of ozone in the
upper atmosphere. The level of ozone normally found is 4.14.1
parts/million (ppm). A researcher believes that the current ozone
level is at an insufficient level. The mean of 10401040 samples is
4.04.0 ppm. Assume a population standard deviation of 1.21.2. Does
the data support the researcher's claim at the 0.020.02 level?
Step 1 of 6: State the null and alternative hypotheses.
Step 2 of 6: Find the value...

Chlorine monoxide (ClO) plays a major role in the creation of
the ozone holes in the stratosphere over Earth's polar regions.
Part 1-If Δ[ClO] Δt at 298 K is 22.97×10–6 M/s, what is the rate
of change in [Cl2] in the following reaction? $$2ClO(g)
Cl2(g)+O2(g) Part 2 What is the rate of change in [O2] in the
reaction? Part 3 If Δ[ClO] Δt is 28.81×10–3 M/s, what is the rate
of appearance of oxygen in the following reaction? $$ClO(g)+O3(g)
O2(g)+ClO2(g)...

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