Question

In: Anatomy and Physiology

Write a short essay on the interaction of the special senses with the autonomic nervous system

Write a short essay on the interaction of the special senses with the autonomic nervous system

Solutions

Expert Solution

The functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. Neurons connect with each other by synapses to create a complex network that conveys electrical impulses all around the body. The function of this system is to take in information from the external and internal environments and to initiate an appropriate response.

• The brain and spinal cord form the control centre of this network and consist of dense accumulations of nervous tissue.

• The brain can be seen to be divided into fore, mid and hindbrains. Each part of the brain performs a different function and is vital for the survival of the animal.

• To ensure that the brain functions normally it is protected externally by a bony cranium and three layers of meninges and internally by the ventricular system consisting of canals filled with cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, every blood vessel entering the brain is wrapped in a layer of protective cells forming the blood–brain barrier, which prevents potentially harmful substances reaching the brain tissue.

• The whole body is supplied by the peripheral nerves. These are given off as cranial nerves from the brain and spinal nerves from the spinal cord.

• There are five special senses, each of which is vital for the survival of the individual.

• External stimuli, e.g. sight and sound, are perceived by specialised receptor cells located within the special sense organs.

• Information from the receptor cells is transmitted by nerve impulses to the brain by cranial nerves. It is interpreted within specific centres in the brain and a response is initiate

These senses permit the central nervous system to produce reactions for the stimuli and maintain body homeostasis. ... Special senses detect the sensations of taste, smell, hearing, equilibrium, and sight, only in special sense organs in the head region (a phenomenon known as “cephalization").

The sympathetic nervous system can accelerate heart rate, widen bronchial passages, decrease motility of the large intestine, constrict blood vessels, increase peristalsis in the esophagus, cause pupillary dilation, piloerection (goose bumps) and perspiration (sweating), and raise blood pressure.

Afferent messages carry sensations such as heat, cold, or pain. Some evolutionary theorists suggest that the sympathetic nervous system operated in early organisms to maintain survival since the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for priming the body for action. One example of this priming is in the moments before waking, in which sympathetic outflow spontaneously increases in preparation for activity.


Related Solutions

Autonomic nervous system : Is a component of the peripheral nervous system, it regulates involuntary physiologic...
Autonomic nervous system : Is a component of the peripheral nervous system, it regulates involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion. This system works automatically without a person’s conscious effort. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system can affect any body part or process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. Apart of the autonomic nervous system there are three anatomically distinct divisions: sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric. Somatic nervous system : Contains both afferent nerves (which send information...
how does the autonomic nervous system control digestion? where is the enteric nervous system?
how does the autonomic nervous system control digestion? where is the enteric nervous system?
Discuss the breakdown of the Nervous system. Make sure to fully breakdown the autonomic nervous system.
Discuss the breakdown of the Nervous system. Make sure to fully breakdown the autonomic nervous system.
Discuss a specific drug that affects the autonomic nervous system.
Discuss a specific drug that affects the autonomic nervous system.
Define autonomic nervous system and explain its relationship to the peripheral nervous system. Compare the functions...
Define autonomic nervous system and explain its relationship to the peripheral nervous system. Compare the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic division of the ANS. Describe the difference between somatic and autonomic motor pathways. Describe a visceral reflex arc. Compare the anatomy of the sympathetic and parasympathetic division of the ANS. Describe major pathways of the parasympathetic division of ANS. Describe sympathetic innervation of the adrenal glands. Describe how neurotransmitters/receptor interact to determine response of effector. Describe the effects of...
Special Senses: What so special about the "Special Senses". Why do we call General Senses general...
Special Senses: What so special about the "Special Senses". Why do we call General Senses general and Special Senses Special??
Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system is INCORRECT?
Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system is INCORRECT?  A The preganglionic fibres in the parasympathetic division are usually long compared to the postganglionic fibres  B The sympathetic division mediates responses that allow the body to respond to 'flight and fright' situations  C The ganglia of the sympathetic division are usually close to the spinal cord  D The adrenal medulla is a sympathetic ganglion  E The parasympathetic nerves arise from the brain stem and the sacral region...
contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and their effects
contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and their effects
Can you provide an example of a disease that is a result of autonomic nervous system...
Can you provide an example of a disease that is a result of autonomic nervous system imbalances? Explain. Please type answer, i'm awful at reading others handwritting.
ANS A) Compare the two branches of the autonomic nervous system in terms of neurotransmitters and...
ANS A) Compare the two branches of the autonomic nervous system in terms of neurotransmitters and receptors. ​B) How can the same neurotransmitter cause different responses? Be specific as possible and compare the lungs bronchial muscles with the heart response to epinephrine in terms of their receptor types and second messenger respones.
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT