explain the effects of each of the following on the rates of glucose and/or glycogen metabolism
a) effects on decreasing the concentration of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. support your answer by stating the biochemical principle that governs metabolic regulation
b) decreasing the amount of blood glucagon. support your answer by briefly explaining the role of glucagon.
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as Harden-Young ester, is fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 (i.e., is a fructosephosphate). The β-D-form of this compound is common in cells. Upon entering the cell, most glucose and fructose is converted to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate lies within the glycolysis metabolic pathway and is produced by phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate. It is, in turn, broken down into two compounds: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. It is an allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase through distinct interactions of binding and allostery at the enzyme's catalytic site .
In iron chelation:-
Fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) has also been implicated in the ability to bind and sequester Fe(II), a soluble form of iron whose oxidation to the insoluble Fe(III) is capable of generating reactive oxygen species via Fenton chemistry. The ability of fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) to bind Fe(II) may prevent such electron transfers, and thus act as an antioxidant within the body. Certain neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, have been linked to metal deposits with high iron content, although it is uncertain whether Fenton chemistry plays a substantial role in these diseases, or whether fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) is capable of mitigating those effects.
So ,if we will decrease the concentration of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, glycolisys and iron chilation will be affected.
Glucagon balances the effects of insulin by regulating the amount of sugar in your blood. If you have too much glucagon, your cells don't store sugar and instead sugar stays in your bloodstream. Glucagonoma leads to diabetes-like symptoms and other painful and dangerous symptoms, including: high blood sugar.