In: Anatomy and Physiology
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1- What is one similarity and one difference between voluntary motor system that innervate the head versus voluntary motor system that innervate the body?
2- Does olfactory bulb (direct) relay to primary sensory cortex via the thalamus?
3- Write a short paragraph using the following terms: opiates; endorphins, pain relief.
4- In your own words, explain one way in which neuroplasticity allows learning and memory to occur
5/ Why cone receptors are able to send information about different frequencies of light?
Answer 5-There are two types of photoreceptors cells - rods and cones. Based on their composition,rods function at night whereas cones functions in bright light.
Cones cells are less sensitive to light than rod cells . They perceive finer detail because their response time to the stimuli is faster than rods.Cones are of three types, all 3 with different pigment. Each type of cone is sensitive to visible wavelengths which correspond to short-wavelength, medium-wavelength and longer-wavelength light.
photoreceptorsare convert light into signals which stimulate biological processes. photoreceptor proteins in cell absorbs the photons, bringing a change in the membrane potential of cell.Cones respond differently to light and they function best in bright light, in comparison to rod cells, that work better in dim light.
Answer 4- Neuroplasticity is when people repeat something or practice any activity or gain new me, then the groups of neurons that fire and work together, creat the electrochemipathways,then they modify themselves according to that activity or memory. And that information becomes memory in the brain which helps in the learning process.
Answer 1- central nervous system is the main processing information part of the body . It contains motor cortex where all information is carried via afferent nervour and then response is generated.
Peripheral nervous system is the other part that collects information from the body's periphery and reaction is done with the help of skeletal muscles. Voluntary motor system innervating head is the upper motor neuron that supplies brain cortex whereas lower motor neuron innervates spinal cord and the complete body.
Answer 3- opioids are the natural drugs which are obtained from the plant opium poppy. They have analgesic effect on our body . They provide relief from pain . But at times,they are abused. They work as painkillers and induce sleep.
Endorphins are group of natural hormones which are secreted from the brain to relief pain. They bind to the opioid receptors in the body and produce analgesic effect and produce sleep and ultimately decreasing pain.