In: Anatomy and Physiology
CAN YOU PLEASE ANSWER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AND PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS THANK YOU
1/ What is one similarity and one difference between voluntary motor system that innervate the head versus voluntary motor system that innervate the body?
2/ Does olfactory bulb (direct) relay to primary sensory cortex via the thalamus?
3/ Write a short paragraph using the following terms: opiates; endorphins, pain relief.
4/ In your own words, explain one way in which neuroplasticity allows learning and memory to occur
1.Voluntary motor system (Head) vs voluntary motor system (body):
Similarity & difference:-
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. The somatic nervous system consists of afferent nerves or sensory nerves, and efferent nerves or motor nerves.
The somatic nervous system controls all voluntary muscular systems within the body, and the process of voluntary reflex arcs. ... Stimuli from the precentral gyrus are transmitted from upper motor neurons and down the corticospinal tract, via axons to control skeletal (voluntary) muscles.
The primary function of the somatic nervous system is to connect the central nervous system to the body's muscles and control voluntary movements and reflex arcs. Information taken in by sensory systems is transmitted to the central nervous system.
2. No, because:-The olfactory bulb (Latin: bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell. It sends olfactory information to be further processed in the amygdala, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the hippocampus where it plays a role in emotion, memory and learning. The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. The main olfactory bulb connects to the amygdala via the piriform cortex of the primary olfactory cortex and directly projects from the main olfactory bulb to specific amygdala areas. The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. Destruction of the olfactory bulb results in ipsilateral anosmia, while irritative lesions of the uncus can result in olfactory and gustatory hallucinations.
3. Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium. Opioid, a more modern term, is used to designate all substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors in the brain (including antagonists).Opiates are alkaloid compounds naturally found in the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum.The psychoactive compounds found in the opium plant include morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Opiates have long been used for a variety of medical conditions with evidence of opiate trade and use for pain relief as early as the eighth century AD.Opiates are considered drugs with moderate to high abuse potential and are listed on various "Substance-Control Schedules" under the Uniform Controlled Substances Act of the United States of America.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals. They are produced and stored in the pituitary gland. The classification of molecules as endorphins is based on their pharmacological activity, as opposed to a specific chemical formulation.
The endorphin class consists of α-endorphin, β-endorphin, and γ-endorphin. All three preferentially bind to μ-opioid receptors. The principal function of endorphins is to inhibit the communication of pain signals. Endorphins may also produce a feeling of euphoria very similar to that produced by other opioids.
the alleviation of pain, typically by means of medication.
Opioid analgesics such as morphine are universally regarded as the most powerful pain-relieving drugs. Morphine acts through the μ-opioid receptor to inhibit signals that transmit pain (13). Pain that follows direct injury to a peripheral nerve is called neuropathic pain.
Brain Plasticity--An Overview
Plasticity, or neuroplasticity, describes how experiences reorganize neural pathways in the brain. Long lasting functional changes in the brain occur when we learn new things or memorize new information. These changes in neural connections are what we call neuroplasticity.
At its most basic level, plasticity refers to the ability of the brain to physically change. ... These changes in neuronal connections are the primary mechanism for learning and memory and are known as “synaptic plasticity.” The idea of synaptic plasticity first emerged in 1894.
E.g.Another amazing example of neuroplasticity is the ability of adult brains to recover after stroke. This is really cool because, until recently, plasticity was thought to be a characteristic exclusive to the developing brains of children.