describe in detail the normal anatomy and physiology of endocrine function of the pancreas
identify issues relation to diabetes care delivery and diabetes releated services.
1). Pancreas is an elongated organ located posterior to the stomach. The head of the pancreas is present in the C –shaped curve of the duodenum and its tail is located against the spleen.
It acts as both endocrine and exocrine gland. It secretes digestive juices directly into the digestive tract but not into the systemic circulation, it is the exocrine function of pancreas.
The acinar cells of the pancreas makeup the bulk of pancreas and produce the pancreatic juice that contains digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase and the other digestive enzymes into the duodenum.
The “Islets of Pancreas” constitute the endocrine cells of the pancreas (islets of Langerhans) contain four types of cells namely “alpha, beta, delta and F cells.” Alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta cells secrete insulin. Delta cells produce somaostatin, and F cells produce pancreatic polypeptide (PP) hormone.
The endocrine function of the pancreas is to maintain the blood glucose levels by releasing the insulin and glucagon. Insulin converts glucose into glycogen, whereas the glucagon converts glycogen into glucose.
Diabetes is a pathological condition that occurs due to decreased insulin secretion by the beta cells or decreased sensitivity of the body cells towards insulin (insulin resistance).
Thus, diabetes is of two types, insulin dependent (type 1) and non-insulin dependent (type 2). Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) because the insulin release decreases in these patients.
Type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent. In type 2 diabetes patients, the pancreas produces insulin, but the cells become resistant to insulin.