Question

In: Biology

In which of the three major macromolecules would you find hydrocarbons? Which functional groups would you...

In which of the three major macromolecules would you find hydrocarbons?

Which functional groups would you find in different types of macromolecules? (Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl groups)

How does carbon organization vary in fructose compared to glucose monosaccharides? What type of reaction forms the glycosidic linkage in a disaccharide like sucrose?

Please give explanations thank you!

Solutions

Expert Solution

Macromolecules = molecules having molecular weight greater than 1000 Dalton's are called macromolecules. Example -- proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid

Hydrocarbon = molecules containing both Carbon and Hydrogen. There can be other molecules also present but Carbon and Hydrogen are must for a molecule to be called hydrocarbon.

3 major molecules in which we can find hydrocarbons are ---: Proteins -- these are made of amino acid and amino acids from nucleotides. Nucleotide consists of a Pentose-sugar , nitrogen base and phosphorus. The structure of pentose sugar and nitrogen base consist of carbon and hydrogen in its basic structure.

Carbohydrates -- these are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Nucleic acids -- these are DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. And nucleotides consists of nitrogenous base, pentose sugar and a Phosphate. Nitrogen base and pentose sugar is made of carbon Hydrogen in their basic structure and also consist of other elements like N, O.

3 macromolecules that have carbon and Hydrogen or hydrocarbon are : protein, carbohydrates, nucleic acid.

Functional groups found in different types of Macromolecules are ----

hydroxyl -- -OH ; in pentose sugar ,

carbonyl -- -C=O ; in , carbohydrates like fructose.

carboxyl -- -COOH ; in amino acid like Glutamic acid ; amino -- -NH2 ;

in Nucleic acid -- nucleotide cytosine, Thymine, etc , phosphate -- -P ; Nucleic acid - the nucleotides involved in Nucleic acid consists of pentose sugar, Nitrogen base and a Phosphate group ,

methyl group -- -R group it is found in amino acid that is the monomer of protein, in carbohydrates

Carbon organization in fructose and glucose monosaccharides. Fructose and glucose are isomers i.e. having same molecular formula but different molecular structure. Image below shows Structure of glucose and fructose :

Molecular formula -- C6 H12 O6

Molecular structure :

Difference --- C1 carbon in glucose is an aldehyde and C2 consist of a hydroxy gruop while in fructose C1 is also aldehyde but C2 is ketone. They differ at C2 carbon.

Glycosidic linkage in disaccharide like Sucrose --- the glycosidic linkage in sucrose is a result of dehydration reaction.

Sucrose is made of monomers glucose and fructose and they both bond by undergoing dehydration reaction as shown below in image :

As the bond is formed 1 molecule of water is released.


Related Solutions

a. Label and give the name for the the major functional groups in the DNA molecule?...
a. Label and give the name for the the major functional groups in the DNA molecule? b. Functional groups are sites where chemical reactions take place. Using your knowledge of basic organic reactions, think about some possible reactions (e.g. SN2, E1, E2, SN1, etc.) that can occur at each of the functional groups in the DNA molecule? c. Label the functional groups in the DNA molecule as hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Is the overall DNA molecule generally classified as hydrophobic or...
Which of the following compounds is most acidic? (Consider the functional groups present and their effect)....
Which of the following compounds is most acidic? (Consider the functional groups present and their effect). Select one: a. ethanol b. propanol c. 2-chloropropanol d. butanol e. 3-chloropropanol
Which two of the major groups of bacteria are linked to the Endosymbiotic Theory and what...
Which two of the major groups of bacteria are linked to the Endosymbiotic Theory and what organelles are involved?
Which of the following functional groups always has non-zero formal charges in its Lewis structure? A....
Which of the following functional groups always has non-zero formal charges in its Lewis structure? A. -oh B. -No2 C.-Nh2 D. -co2h 2. What is the condensed structure for butane? 3. Resonance is the result of A. Side to side overlap of p orbitals B. End to end overlap of p orbitals C. End to end overlap of s orbitals D. Side to side overlap of d orbitals
Which is more polar, 4-Methylcyclohexanol or 4-Methylcyclohexane? Explain using functional groups and give the basic NMR,...
Which is more polar, 4-Methylcyclohexanol or 4-Methylcyclohexane? Explain using functional groups and give the basic NMR, IR, and Mass spectroscopy for both compounds
What are the major foreign policy interest groups? In your opinion, which one is the strongest,...
What are the major foreign policy interest groups? In your opinion, which one is the strongest, and which one is the weakest?
The three mechanisms through which social groups/classes can attempt to influence or shape politics: interest groups,...
The three mechanisms through which social groups/classes can attempt to influence or shape politics: interest groups, elections, and social movements. How well does each of these three mechanisms work?
The three mechanisms through which social groups/classes can attempt to influence or shape politics: interest groups,...
The three mechanisms through which social groups/classes can attempt to influence or shape politics: interest groups, elections, and social movements. What are their limitations and possible problems?
Describe a situation in which you might find yourself where you would need to perform an...
Describe a situation in which you might find yourself where you would need to perform an immediate titration. Think hard. This should be a solid paragraph answer.
Explain with examples three major ways major ways through which the development experience is a paradox
Explain with examples three major ways major ways through which the development experience is a paradox
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT