In: Anatomy and Physiology
2. In order for an effector to respond to a command via either of the endocrine or nervous system, it must be able to respond to a chemical (hormone or neurotransmitter). Explain how the effector is able to respond to these chemical signals (i.e. what must it have either in its membrane or inside its cells). Describe how this process of intercellular communication exemplifies the relationship between structure and function.
The hormones are the chemical substances released from the endocrine gland of the body to perform specific functions such as growth, development, and reproduction.
the neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers responsible for the communication between two nerve cells and in between nerve cells and another body cell.
Both the hormone and neurotransmitters act on the cell by binding with specific receptors present in the cell membranes of various cells. The hormones and neurotransmitters bind with the receptors and produce various biochemical changes in effector cells and produce different responses.
When acetylcholine neurotransmitter released from motor nerve end to the neuromuscular junction between smooth muscle fiber and nerve cell. it binds to binds to a muscarinic receptor present on smooth muscle cells and increases calcium influx in muscle fiber and activation od adenyl cyclase in sarcoplasm results contraction of smooth muscles.
The result of contraction is due to the depolarization of the sarcolemma, and opening of calcium channel and involvement of various structures of cells.