Mitochondria are the organelle present in the cell, which can be seen only through electron microscope. They are spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism.
They are bounded by a double membrane the outer membrane projects to the cytoplasm and the inner membrane project into the matrix.
The inner membrane is convoluted into several folds, called “cristae.” The surface area of the inner membrane is increased by cristae. Matrix contains a concentrated mixture of enzymes, which play an important role in the metabolism of nutrients.
The main function of mitochondria is energy production. And so, because of this function, they often called as “power hoses of the cell.” The metabolism of nutrients takes place in the matrix by the enzymes present it. Oxidative phosphorylation is the main metabolic process through which ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is generated.
Depend upon the energy needs; their occurrence varies from cell to cell. For example, skeletal muscles have more mitochondria; whereas red blood cells are completely lack of mitochondria.
Explanation of their function
1.The main function of mitochondria is to perform cellular respiration this means it takes in nutrients from cell ,breaks it down ,and turns it into energy
It is called as power house of cell because the process of ATP formation takes place in mitochondria.
2.It helps cells to maintain proper concentration of calcium ions within the compartments of the cell.
3.It also helps in building certain parts of blood and Harmons like testosterone and estrogen.
4.Liver cell mitochondria have enzymes that detoxify ammonia.
5.They plays an important role in the process of apoptosis.
Power house of the cell