##### Question

In: Anatomy and Physiology

# Questions Question 1. Equation 1: Mean Arterial Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output X Total Peripheral Resistance...

Questions

Question 1.

Equation 1: Mean Arterial Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output X Total Peripheral Resistance

Equation 2: Blood Flow = Δ Blood Pressure / Resistance

If you increase the radius of a blood vessel this leads to a decrease in the resistance to blood flow along that blood vessel. If the difference in blood pressure between the beginning and the end of this blood vessel does not change, then according to equation 2, blood flow should increase.

But, equation 1 suggests that if you decrease resistance then you should decrease blood pressure. According to equation 2, if you decrease blood pressure then blood flow should decrease.

Therefore, there appears to be a conflict between the two equations with a decrease in resistance (equation 2) leading to an increase in blood flow but also leading to a decrease in blood pressure (equation 1) which should, in turn, lead to a decrease in blood flow (equation 2). However, there is no conflict. Think carefully about what the two equations represent and indicate why this apparent conflict does not exist.

## Solutions

##### Expert Solution

Blood flow refers to the movement of blood through a vessel, tissue, or organ, and is usually expressed in terms of volume of blood per unit of time

Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood vessels or the chambers of the heart, Arterial Blood Pressure is the pressure of blood flowing in the arteries of the systemic circulation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) represents the “average” pressure of blood in the arteries

Cardiac output is the measurement of blood flow from the heart through the ventricles and is usually measured in liters per minute

Equation 1: Mean Arterial Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output X Total Peripheral Resistance

Equation 2: Blood Flow = Δ Blood Pressure / Resistance

Now if we rearrange the Eq 2, we will get: Δ Blood Pressure = Blood Flow X Resistance......Eq 3.

From Eq 3 states that an increase in resistance will increase the Blood pressure

Also, Poiseuille’s equation states that Blood flow = ​​π ΔP r^​4​​​​ / ​8ηλ.

• π is the Greek letter pi, used to represent the mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. It may commonly be represented as 3.14
• Δ Blood Pressure represents the difference in pressure.
• r^4 is the radius (one-half of the diameter) of the vessel to the fourth power.
• η is the Greek letter eta and represents the viscosity of the blood.
• λ is the Greek letter lambda and represents the length of a blood vessel.

By rearranging it slightly to get Resistance and equating with eq 2,

Resistance = ​​​​8 η λ​​ / ​π r​^4

Now, the radius can be changed rapidly by vasoconstriction and vasodilation, thus dramatically impacting resistance and flow. Further, small changes in the radius will greatly affect the flow,

Thus we can see that there is no conflict

## Related Solutions

##### The formula for Mean Arterial Pressure = Cardiac Output x Total Peripheral Resistance. Please explain the...
The formula for Mean Arterial Pressure = Cardiac Output x Total Peripheral Resistance. Please explain the normal responses of Cardiac Output during graded exercise (intensity increases) and total peripheral resistance.
##### explain 3 ways that cardiac output and total peripheral resistance are altered to affect blood pressure.
explain 3 ways that cardiac output and total peripheral resistance are altered to affect blood pressure.
##### Describe how cardiogenic shock would impact cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, then describe how the...
Describe how cardiogenic shock would impact cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, then describe how the autonomic nervous system would respond to this. How could this response be potentially detrimental to both the heart and organs?
##### Being as precise as possible, identify and explain 3 ways that cardiac output and total peripheral...
Being as precise as possible, identify and explain 3 ways that cardiac output and total peripheral resistance are altered to affect blood pressure.
##### 1. Explain the effects of pressure,resistance, and venous return on cardiac output? 2. Describe how cardiovasculr...
1. Explain the effects of pressure,resistance, and venous return on cardiac output? 2. Describe how cardiovasculr Regulatory Mechanisms respond to changes in blood pressure and blood chemistry? (This answer must include how the ANS, endocrine system, baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, all work wirh the cardiovascular system)
##### 1. Physiology of blood pressure and cardiac output 2. Complication of hypertension and heart failure including...
1. Physiology of blood pressure and cardiac output 2. Complication of hypertension and heart failure including prevention
##### For the questions on this project assume that the mean systolic blood pressure of adults in...
For the questions on this project assume that the mean systolic blood pressure of adults in America is 120 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) with a standard deviation of 5.6 mmHg. Also assume the variable is normally distributed. 1) Your company develops a new treatment for high blood pressure. You want to test it on people who are in the 90th percentile or higher (people who have a higher systolic blood pressure than 90% of other Americans). What is the cut-off...
##### Pls solve all this question 1.    Review the general A/P related to the heart, cardiac circulation, peripheral...
Pls solve all this question 1.    Review the general A/P related to the heart, cardiac circulation, peripheral circulation, the lungs, ventilation, and perfusion. 2.    Discuss the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic test, complications, and medical treatment associated with myocardial infarction, heart failure, shock, peripheral vascular disease (hypertension, PVD, PAD, Varicose veins, aneurysm, valvular heart diseases, Rheumatic heart diseases, endocarditis, pericarditis, pericardial effusion, COPD, common cold, upper respiratory disorders/ inflammations, asthma, emphysema, acute and chronic bronchitis, atelectasis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary emboli ARDS, SARs,...
##### 1. If systemic vascular resistance increases, what happens to blood pressure and why? There are two...
1. If systemic vascular resistance increases, what happens to blood pressure and why? There are two ways. 2. What three things determine vascular resistance? What happens to vascular resistance as each increases or decreases? 3. What happens to blood pressure as you mive farther away from the heart? Is blood pressure higher in arteries or veins? 4. If venous return to the heart decreases, what happens to cardiax output and why?
##### 1. If systemic vascular resistance increases, what happens to blood pressure and why? There are two...
1. If systemic vascular resistance increases, what happens to blood pressure and why? There are two ways. 2. What three things determine vascular resistance? What happens to vascular resistance as each increases or decreases? 3. Of the factors above that affect resistance, which would be at play when we say that obese patients are more likely to have high blood pressure?