In: Statistics and Probability

Researchers at a cardiovascular institute are concerned about the association between exercise and hypertension among their patient population. Suppose in order to assess this relationship, the researchers conducted a study where a population of 35-55 year old participants were enrolled and followed for a period of 10 years, and required to submit weekly diary submissions about their exercise routines. The researchers then conducted clinic visits where blood pressure was measured and hypertensive status was confirmed. Suppose the following table illustrates the relationship when exercise habits are categorized into the following groups. Hypertension No Hypertension Total No Exercise 105 115 220 Exercise 1-2 x Week 101 305 406 Exercise more than 2 x per Week 13 143 156 Total 219 563 782 a) Carry out a formal test to determine if there is a difference in the outcome between the various exercise categories. Write out your null and alternative hypotheses and interpret your results with 95% confidence.

The hypothesis being tested is:

H0: There is no difference in the outcome between the various exercise categories

Ha: There is a difference in the outcome between the various exercise categories

Col 1 | Col 2 | Total | ||

Row 1 | Observed |
105 |
115 |
220 |

Expected | 61.61 | 158.39 | 220.00 | |

O - E | 43.39 | -43.39 | 0.00 | |

(O - E)² / E | 30.56 | 11.89 | 42.44 | |

Row 2 | Observed |
101 |
305 |
406 |

Expected | 113.70 | 292.30 | 406.00 | |

O - E | -12.70 | 12.70 | 0.00 | |

(O - E)² / E | 1.42 | 0.55 | 1.97 | |

Row 3 | Observed |
13 |
143 |
156 |

Expected | 43.69 | 112.31 | 156.00 | |

O - E | -30.69 | 30.69 | 0.00 | |

(O - E)² / E | 21.56 | 8.39 | 29.94 | |

Total | Observed | 219 | 563 | 782 |

Expected | 219.00 | 563.00 | 782.00 | |

O - E | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 | |

(O - E)² / E | 53.53 | 20.82 | 74.35 | |

74.35 | chi-square | |||

2 | df | |||

7.15E-17 | p-value |

The p-value is 0.0000.

Since the p-value (0.0000) is less than the significance level (0.05), we can reject the null hypothesis.

Therefore, we can conclude that there is a difference in the outcome between the various exercise categories.

Researchers are concerned about the prevalence of skin cancers
among adults aged 35-50 in a population with frequently moderate,
warm temperatures. The prevalence of such skin cancers in the
population is only 16%. Suppose a sample of adults in this age
range is conducted and among the 197 adults surveyed, 64 reported
at least one skin cancer removal.
A) Can researchers approximate the distribution with the
standard normal?
B) Calculate the probability of observing the results seen in
the sample....

discuss the idea about cardiovascular
system and respiratory system disorders, and the association of
cardiovascular system and respiratory system with each other.

Researchers wanted to determine if there was an association
between daily appleapple consumption and the occurrence of high
cholesterolhigh cholesterol. The researchers looked at 94 comma
22894,228 women and asked them to report their
appleapple?-eatingeating habits. The researchers also determined
which of the women had high cholesterolhigh cholesterol. After
their? analysis, the researchers concluded that consumption of two
or more servingstwo or more servings of Granny Smith applesGranny
Smith apples per day was associated with a reduction in high
cholesterolhigh...

Information about an association between two interval-ratio
variables is presented below. The association is between “the hours
of screen time per day” (Y) and “years of schooling” (X). A measure
of the overall association is given as well as the specific
components of the OLS model. The OLS model estimates the effect of
education (X) on the hours of screen time per day (Y).
Association Between x and y Estimate
r -0.229
Rsqrd
OLS Model components Estimate
Constant (a)...

A study was conducted to determine association between physical
fitness and overall mortality among adults between 40 and 70 years
of age. Researchers identified 500 study participants who exercised
3 or more times per week (exposed) and 500 study participants who
exercised less than 3 times per week (unexposed). The study
participants were followed over time until they died, were lost to
follow-up, or up to a maximum 10 years of follow-up. The high
exercise group had 26 deaths and...

You are the Colonel of the Maryland State Police, and you are
concerned about drinking among state troopers. You take
a random sample of 150 police offers and find that the median
number of drinks per week is 2 and the mean number of drinks per
week is 4.7 with a standard deviation of 8.
Construct a 90% confidence interval around the appropriate
point estimate. Interpret your results.
Construct a 93% confidence interval around your point
estimate. Interpret your results. Why did the...

A. Researchers conducted a case control study to identify the
association between alcohol consumption and esophageal cancer among
men. They enrolled 187 men with esophageal cancer and 715 men
without esophageal cancer. The men were asked about their regular
alcohol consumption and the men were categorized as either drinking
≥80 g/day (exposed) or <80 g/day (unexposed). Among the men with
esophageal cancer, 92 drank ≥80 g of alcohol per day; 177 of the
men without esophageal cancer drank ≥80 g...

Researchers have found general relationships between
testicular cancer and exercise. increased exercise is associated
with a decrease in incidence of testicular cancer. However, a
positive relationship( increased incidence of testicular cancer)
was found between testicular cancer and riding bikes or horses.
several factors might be hypothesized to bring about this result.
which of these hypotheses is properly related to a prediction that
arises from it?

A patient asks about
the differences between primary and secondary hypertension.
· What are the differences between
primary and secondary hypertension that the nurse should review
with the patient?
· What are the routine laboratory
studies that the nurse can anticipate will be ordered for the
patient to aid in the diagnosis of hypertension?

Researchers have been studying the association between
cigarette smoking and caffeine intake and
Parkinson's Disease for more than 40 years. The results
of a study by Checkoway et al. (2002) follow:
Ever having smoked cigarettes resulted with an odds
ratio (OR) = 0.5 (95% confidence interval (CI):
0.4, 0.8).
The OR for current smokers was OR = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1,
0.7).
Among ex-smokers the OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4,
0.9).
Interpret the three ORs (in your own
words).

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