Some of the properties which are used to identify the minerals are-
Color- Most minerals have a distinctive color which is used as the most basic and the fundamental tool to identify the mineral. it is the most basic step to the identification of mineral.
Hardness- Hardness is the measure of the resistance power of a mineral scratching. It is measured in the Mohs scale which is a 10 pointer scale. In this, the Talc softest mineral scoring 1 in Mohs scale whereas diamond is the hardest mineral having scored 10 in the Mohs scale.
Luster- Luster is the property which means how much light is reflected by the surface of a mineral. It is a very good measure to distinguish the minerals in broad category. Like the metallic minerals is a good reflector of light. On the other hand, nonmetallic minerals are dark colores and do not reflect the light.
Crystalline structure- Most of the minerals have a unique crystalline structure. This structure depicts how the atoms which formed the minerals have been bonded together. This joining of the atoms is known as the crystal lattice. Every mineral has its own lattice which is a good property to distinguish them.
There are very few minerals that do not have the lattice. They are known as the amorphous crystals. These can be seen only under the condition of very high magnification.
If we consider broad classification there are generally two types of weathering-
Physical Weathering and how it affects a rock-
Physical weathering is the geographical process by which rocks break into smaller pieces in a course of time with no change in its chemical characteristics. Basically physical weathering change the shape of a rock and its physical look. Like through block disintegration weathering process, big chunks of rocks break into smaller pieces. Physical weathering agents are - Air, Water, Ice, etc.
Chemical Weathering and how it affects a rock-
Chemical weathering is a gradual process in which the chemical structure of a rock changes. In this process sometimes secondary minerals are formed over the primary rock surface. Many times we can see specific patterns are being made over the primary rock structure because of the gradual chemical weathering. Many times chemical weathering loosen the bonding structure of the existing rock causing it to break into smaller parts. sometimes chemical weathering forms new types of rock near the old one. Hydrolysis and oxidation are the main processes of chemical weathering.