In: Electrical Engineering

13. a) Explain the working of a pneumatic P+I controller. b) A PI controller is reverse acting with PB = 20% and repeats per minute = 12 and derivative time 0.2 minutes. Determine the time at which the controller output reaches zero percent if the input error ep to the controller varies ep = 0.9t%, t ≥ 0 the controller output at t = 0 was72%.

Consider the pneumatic system shown in Fig. 1 .It consists of
several pneumatic components The components, which can be easily
identified, are: flapper nozzle amplifier, air relay, bellows and
springs, feedback arrangeet etc. The overall arrangement is known
as a pneumatic proportional controller. It acts as a controller in
a pneumatic system generating output pressure proportional to the
displacement e at one end of the link. The input to the system is a
small linear displacement e and the output is pressure Po. The
input displacement may be caused by a small differential pressure
to a pair of bellows, or by a small current driving an
electromagnetic unit. There are two springs K2 and Kf

those exert forces against the movements of the bellows A2 and Af.
For a positive displacement of e (towards right) will cause
decrease of pressure in the flapper nozzle. This will cause an
upward movement of the bellows A2 (decrease in y). Consequently the
output pressure of the air relay will increase. The increase in
output pressure will move the free end of the feedback bellows
towards left, bringing in the gap between the flapper and nozzle to
almost its original value. We will first develop the closed loop
representation of the scheme and from there the input output
relationship will be worked out. The air is assumed to be
impressible here.Integral action requires the addition of a second
bellows (a “reset” bellows, positioned opposite the output feedback
bellows) and another restrictor valve to the mechanism.This second
bellows takes air pressure from the output line and translates it
into force that opposes the original feedback bellows. At first,
this may seem counter-productive, for nullifies the ability of this
mechanism to continuously balance the force generated by the PV and
SP bellows. Indeed, it would render the force-balance system
completely ineffectual if this new “reset” bellows were allowed to
inflate and deflate with no timelag. However, with a time lag
provided by the restriction of the integral adjustment valve and
the volume of the bellows (a sort of pneumatic “RC time constant”),
the nullifying

force of this bellows becomes delayed over time. As this bellows
slowly fills (or empties)

with pressurized air from the nozzle, the change in force on the
beam causes the regular output bellows to have to “stay ahead” of
the reset bellows action by constantly filling (or emptying) at
some rate over time.

Explain what a P‐, PI - and a PID controller are, and present important characteristics for these controllers

Explain what a P, PI and PID controller are and present
important features for these controllers.
Proportional
Integral
Derivative

Please explain why B is the correct answer, I know on the
5'---->3' it goes reverse
and 3'-->5' it goes forward.......I got lost after this.
Please explain. Will give a thumbs up.
-----
Which of the following sets of primers could you use to amplify
the target DNA sequence below, which is part of the last
protein-coding exon of the gene involved in cystic fibrosis?
5’- ggctaagatctgaattttccgag … ttgggcaataatgtagcgcctt - 3’
3’- ccgattctagacttaaaaggctc … aacccgttattacatcgcggaa – 5’
a) 5’ GGAAAATTCAGATCTTAG...

Let pi = P(X = i) and suppose that p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 = 1.
Suppose that E(X) = 2.5.
(a) What values of p1, p2, p3, and p4 maximize Var(X)?
(b) What values of p1, p2, p3, and p4 minimize Var(X)?

In working the following problem, I solved for P to derive:
P=60.65-.5Q. From there I calculated TR and MR. I set up excel with
Q ranging up to 60 and used P as a function of Q with the P
equation. TR=60.65Q-.5Q^2 MR=60.65-1Q I set MC = to the .65
(constant cost but I am not sure that this was correct.) I was able
to solve for Q=60 and plug in to Price equation to get profit but I
am...

a.
define pi bond. explain differance between localuzed and
delicalized pi bond
b.
give an example of delocalized pi system

Let A and B be two events in a sample with P(A)=0.4 and
P(AuB)=0.7.Let P(B)=p
a)i For what value of p are A and B mutually exclusive?
ii for what value of p are A and B independent?
b) Assume that P(A)=0.4 and P(B)=0.3
i find P(B')
ii if A and B are mutually exclusive , what is P(A or B)
ii given that P(A or B)=0.6, Find the P(B/A)
c) suppose events A and B are such that P(A)=0.25,P(B)...

I have a transfer function
T(S)=.023/(.02913S^3+.1543s^2+.1205S). I need to design a PI, PD,
or PID controller to give this system a peak overshoot PO of 15%
and a rising time Tr of 3 seconds. I have equations that relate the
characteristic equation to the PO and Tr, but that only works for a
second order equation.

Let p= 11 and 13. (a) Determine all the squares modulo p in
(Z/pZ)∗. (b) Using this determine the value of the Legendre
symbol(a/p)for all a∈(Z/pZ)∗. (c) For all a∈(Z/pZ)∗, compute
a^((p−1)/2) and confirm that a^((p−1)/2)=(a/p).

A reverse or two-way causation may
occur in the S-C-P paradigm”. Explain this proposition with support
of three examples.

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