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In: Biology

-Endocrine system - Nerve system - Cardiovascular system - Digestive system What are their primary organs...

-Endocrine system
- Nerve system
- Cardiovascular system
- Digestive system

What are their primary organs and functions?
What are some primary lifestyle choices to help live a healthier life?
What are some risk factors to avoid for a healthier life?

Solutions

Expert Solution

Answer) primary organ of the endocrine system and their function
* Hypothalamus - It is a small region of a brain. It controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
* Pituitary - It secretes hormones into our bloodstream. It controls growth, blood pressure, breathing rate, etc.
* Thyroid - small gland present at the base of the neck. releases thyroxine. Regulated by iodine. In case if there is a deficiency of iodine then thyroid glands swell up causing goiter.
* Adrenals - produces a hormone that regulates your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions
* Pineal body - secrete melatonin which regulates biological rhythms such as sleep and wake cycles.
* Reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) - Ovaries are present in females and secrete estrogen and progesterone. The testis is present in males produces sperms and releases hormone testosterone.

Answer) Primary organs and functions of the nerve system
There are 2 types of the nervous system
1) CNS (central nervous system) - Made up of the brain and spinal cord.
* Brain - It controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, voluntary and involuntary actions, and the function of many organs (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) within our body.
* Spinal cord - It relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body, to perform an action.
2) The peripheral nervous system - made up of nerves that branch off from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body.- It connects the central nervous system to the organs, limbs, and skin to allow for complex movements and behaviors.

Answer) primary organs of the cardiovascular system
* Heart - also called pump of our body. All the blood is pumped by the heart to all organs to function properly. contains both deoxygenated blood oxygenated blood. oxygenated blood is carried to all parts of the body while deoxygenated blood is pumped to the lungs.
* Lungs - When we breathe and take oxygen in lungs, It makes deoxygenated blood oxygenated. It also helps the body to get rid of CO2 gas when we breathe out.
* Arteries and Veins - these both are vessels that carry blood. Arteries deliver oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body
Veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart so that it can be pumped to the lungs which makes it oxygenated.

Answer) primary organs and functions of the digestive system
* Salivary glands - It secretes salivary amylase which breaks down carbohydrates in the food into simpler substances.
* Oesophagus - long pipe-like structure which carries food from mouth to stomach.
* Stomach - secrete hydrochloric acid and mucus. acid kills the bacteria in food and much prevents the wall of the stomach from any damage by HCl.
* Liver - releases bile juice, which helps in the emulsification of fats. * Pancreas - releases pancreatic juices and makes food basic in nature which is coming from the stomach.
* Small intestine - It pepsin, trypsin, and lipase which helps in the break down of protein, fats, and lipids. nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine. Water is also absorbed here.
* Large intestine - Maximum absorption of water takes place here.
* Rectum - Waste products are removed by this organ.

Answer) Some primary lifestyle choices to help live a healthier life
* Eat a variety of food but it should be nutritious
* Avoid junk or fast food as much as you can
* Reduce sugar and salt in your food.
* Drink plenty of water.
* Eat fruits instead of making its juice.
*, Do exercise and yoga daily.
* Do not smoke, it damages lungs
* Do meditation to make your mind also healthy

Answer) Some risk factors to avoid for a healthier life include obesity, smoking, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, high blood pressure and high cholesterol level. These can cause cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic disease. Obesity (overweight) is the root of these type of disease. Smoking causes lung disease or cancer. consumption of alcohol in excess quantity is injurious to health which can cause heart failure, fatal aneurysm and death also. High cholesterol level blocks our blood vescels causing change in blood pressure.


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