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In: Statistics and Probability

# Discuss the following processes/issues regarding qualitative data analysis: Preliminary processes to analysis and the manner in...

Discuss the following processes/issues regarding qualitative data analysis:

Preliminary processes to analysis and the manner in which they best enhance qualitative data analysis.

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##### Expert Solution

Qualitative Data Analysis

Qualitative data refers to non-numeric information such as interview transcripts, notes, video and audio recordings, images and text documents. Qualitative data analysis can be divided into the following five categories:

1. Content analysis. This refers to the process of categorizing verbal or behavioural data to classify, summarize and tabulate the data.

2. Narrative analysis. This method involves the reformulation of stories presented by respondents taking into account context of each case and different experiences of each respondent. In other words, narrative analysis is the revision of primary qualitative data by researcher.

3. Discourse analysis. A method of analysis of naturally occurring talk and all types of written text.

4. Framework analysis. This is more advanced method that consists of several stages such as familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, coding, charting, mapping and interpretation.

5. Grounded theory. This method of qualitative data analysis starts with an analysis of a single case to formulate a theory. Then, additional cases are examined to see if they contribute to the theory.

Qualitative data analysis can be conducted through the following three steps:

Step 1: Developing and Applying Codes. Coding can be explained as categorization of data. A ‘code’ can be a word or a short phrase that represents a theme or an idea. All codes need to be assigned meaningful titles. A wide range of non-quantifiable elements such as events, behaviours, activities, meanings etc. can be coded.

Step 2: Identifying themes, patterns and relationships. Unlike quantitative methods, in qualitative data analysis there are no universally applicable techniques that can be applied to generate findings. Analytical and critical thinking skills of researcher plays significant role in data analysis in qualitative studies. Therefore, no qualitative study can be repeated to generate the same results.

Step 3: Summarizing the data. At this last stage you need to link research findings to hypotheses or research aim and objectives. When writing data analysis chapter, you can use noteworthy quotations from the transcript in order to highlight major themes within findings and possible contradictions.

It is important to note that the process of qualitative data analysis described above is general and different types of qualitative studies may require slightly different methods of data analysis.

Quantitative Data Analysis

In quantitative data analysis you are expected to turn raw numbers into meaningful data through the application of rational and critical thinking. Quantitative data analysis may include the calculation of frequencies of variables and differences between variables. A quantitative approach is usually associated with finding evidence to either support or reject hypotheses you have formulated at the earlier stages of your research process.

The same figure within data set can be interpreted in many different ways; therefore it is important to apply fair and careful judgement.

For example, questionnaire findings of a resea

This specific piece of primary data findings needs to be critically analyzed and objectively interpreted through comparing it to other findings within the framework of the same research. For example, organizational culture of Agro Bravo Enterprise, leadership style, the levels of frequency of management-employee communications need to be taken into account during the data analysis.

Moreover, literature review findings conducted at the earlier stages of the research process need to be referred to in order to reflect the viewpoints of other authors regarding the causes of employee dissatisfaction with management communication. Also, secondary data needs to be integrated in data analysis in a logical and unbiased manner.

Let’s take another example. You are writing a dissertation exploring the impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the levels of economic growth in Vietnam using correlation quantitative data analysis method. You have specified FDI and GDP as variables for your research and correlation tests produced correlation coefficient of 0.9.

In this case simply stating that there is a strong positive correlation between FDI and GDP would not suffice; you have to provide explanation about the manners in which the growth on the levels of FDI may contribute to the growth of GDP by referring to the findings of the literature review and applying your own critical and rational reasoning skills.

A set of analytical software can be used to assist with analysis of quantitative data. The following table illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of three popular quantitative data analysis software: Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access and SPSS.

In quantitative data analysis you are expected to turn raw numbers into meaningful data through the application of rational and critical thinking. Quantitative data analysis may include the calculation of frequencies of variables and differences between variables. A quantitative approach is usually associated with finding evidence to either support or reject hypotheses you have formulated at the earlier stages of your research process.

The same figure within data set can be interpreted in many different ways; therefore it is important to apply fair and careful judgement.

This specific piece of primary data findings needs to be critically analyzed and objectively interpreted through comparing it to other findings within the framework of the same research. For example, organizational culture of Agro Bravo Enterprise, leadership style, the levels of frequency of management-employee communications need to be taken into account during the data analysis.

Let’s take another example. You are writing a dissertation exploring the impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the levels of economic growth in Vietnam using correlation quantitative data analysis method. You have specified FDI and GDP as variables for your research and correlation tests produced correlation coefficient of 0.9.

In this case simply stating that there is a strong positive correlation between FDI and GDP would not suffice; you have to provide explanation about the manners in which the growth on the levels of FDI may contribute to the growth of GDP by referring to the findings of the literature review and applying your own critical and rational reasoning skills.

A set of analytical software can be used to assist with analysis of quantitative data. The following table illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of three popular quantitative data analysis software: Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access and SPSS.

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