List and Describe three regulated stages of gene expression (hint there are six to choose from).
I need digital answer thanks?
There are six stages at which gene expression regulation may occurs:
1. Chromatin domains
3. Post-transcriptional modification
4. RNA transport
6. mRNA degradation
1. Chromatin domains: Regulation of gene expression occurs at this stage by methylation or acetylation of histone proteins present within chromatin. The acetylation or methylation of histone protenis give the compactness to the chromatin and thus lower the gene expression. ncRNA and DNA binding proteins also affect the compactness of the chromatin.
2. Transcription: Transcription is process of synthesis of mRNA from DNA (gene). Various proteins regulate the transcription which are known as transcription factors. These factors may be enhancer, repressor, silencer or activators. Repressor are the factors which upon binding with operator inhibit the transcription while enhancer promote the transcription process, silencer also suppress the transcription while activators activate the transcription. Thus, regulation of transcription results in the regulation of gene expression.
3. Post-transcriptional modification. After the DNA is transcribed and mRNA is formed, there must be some sort of regulation on how much the mRNA is translated into proteins. Cells do this by modulating the capping, splicing, addition of a Poly(A) Tail, the sequence-specific nuclear export rates, and, in several contexts, sequestration of the RNA transcript.