An otherwise healthy nine-year-old boy developed flu-like symptoms (nausea/vomiting, decreased oral intake, lethargy, and weakness). After three days, the boy’s father called the pediatrician’s office at 8:00PM on a Saturday night. The on-call nurse practitioner returned the call (which was recorded). The father relayed the symptoms and said that Gatorade was making the boy nauseous, but he was still drinking some ginger ale. The father expressed concern about how tired his son was—he’d slept for 24 hours straight (from 8:00 p.m. the previous night). The boy woke up only to be carried downstairs to watch some TV for a little while. He felt a little better than the day before, but he also had some rectal bleeding and some bleeding from his mouth.
The NP acknowledged the boy’s symptoms and said that most of it sounded like a viral illness, but that the rectal bleeding could be something different. She asked the father several questions in order to get a better understanding of the boy’s condition, including:
The NP then asked the father whether he thought the child was
“OK” tonight or felt he should be seen right away. The father
replied that he didn’t think he needed to be seen right now. The NP
agreed and made plans for him to be seen in the office the next
morning (Sunday) after 8:00AM, and she told him to call back if
anything developed during the night. The father asked, “I don’t
need to worry about him not taking any food? He is taking some
ginger ale.” The NP responded by telling him to push the ginger ale
and make sure he’s urinating periodically. The NP documented the
call in the medical record, including that the father was offered
an ED visit (although that was not specifically said, per the audio
At about 4:00AM, the father checked his son and noted that his
son was sleeping but also noted that his son's respiratory rate had
increased significantly. Since his son was sleeping, the father
didn't touch him to check for fever because he didn't want to wake
his son. But, the father couldn't rest worrying about why his son
was breathing so much faster than normal, almost like he had just
been exercising even though his son had been asleep. At about
8:30AM, when the father again checked on his son, his son was not
breathing at all. The father called 911 and started
CPR. The ambulance and EMTs arrived within minutes and found the
child apneic, pulseless, with fixed and dilated pupils, and his
corneas cloudy. At 9:30AM, the child was pronounced
An autopsy found the cause of death to be diabetic ketoacidosis (the child had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus). His blood sugar was 1,165 (nl 50–80); potassium was 7.1 (nl 3.5–5.3); and his HgA1C was 15.3% (nl 4–5.9%).
The parents sued the nurse practitioner, alleging wrongful death of their son due to negligent delay in diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
QUESTION: Provide a brief list of diagnostics that would be required for each of your 5 possible diagnoses.
1) symptoms. - Nausea, vomiting, lethargy, decreased oral intake,. Weakness. possible diagnosis is stomach flu. Stomach fluI is a intestinal infection.
2) symptoms-rectal bleeding and bleeding from mouth
Possible nursing diagnosis is Gastrointestinal bleeding. In this condition we can see this symptoms.
3)The patient suffered with breathing difficulty during night and respiratory rate is more faster than normal.
Possible diagnosis is dyspnoea.
4)sugar and HbA1c are high. -
possible diagnosis is diabetes mellites.
5)High potassium level. -
possible diagnosis is hyperkalaemia.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of the diabetes mellites .It is caused by high level of glucose and ketones in the blood.
Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs because there is not enough insulin to move in to the cell where it can be used for energy. Beside the lack of insulin certain body condition also combined with diabetes (stomach flu) and this infection can trigger the diabetic ketoacidosis. It is a dangerous condition because in our body no enough insulin and blood sugar is very high .The imbalance cause to build up ketones in blood. This is very toxic and it will leads to death.