In: Civil Engineering

Recall the difference between working stress (WSD) and ultimate
strength (USD) design procedures for reinforced concrete.

* WORKING STRESS METHOD

-THIS WAS THE MOST COMMONLY USED TRADITIONAL METHOD OF DESIGN FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE.

-THE MAIN ASSUMPTION OF THIS METHOD IS THAT THE MATERIAL IS ASSUMED TO BE AS LINEAR ELASTIC.

-WORKING LOADS ARE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION DURING THE DESIGN AND IT RESULTS IN RESTRICTING THE STRSSES IN THE MATERIAL.

-THE ASSUMPTION OF LINEAR ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR IS JUSTIFIED AS THE PERMISSIBLE STRESSES ARE BELOW THE MATERIAL STRENGTH.

-FOR THE SAFTEY PURPOSE FACTOR OF SAFTEY IS CONSIDERED DURING THE DESIGN. WHICH IS THE RATION OF STRENGTH OF MATERIAL TO THE STRENGTH OF PERMISSIBLE STRESSES.

-MAIN DISADVANTAGE OF THE DESIGN METHOD IS RESULTING IN LARGE SIZE OF THE STRCTUTAL MEMBERS SUCH BEAMS, COLUMNS ETC MAKING IT UNECONOMICAL.

*ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN.

-IN PRESENT DAYS WITH IMPROMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE MATERIAL PROPERTY THE SHORCOMINGS OF THE WORKING STRESS METHOD ARE OVERCOME .

-IN THIS ULTIMATE LOAD IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION IN THE DESIGN, WHICH INDICATE THAT UPTO THE FAILURE CAPCITY THAT IS COLLAPSE OF THE STRUCTURE IS ANALYSED.

-IN THIS METHOD THERE IS AN INDICATION OF FAILURE OF THE STRUCTURE BEFORE IT FAILS.

-THE NON LINEAR STRESS-STRAIN CURVE OF CONCRETE IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION.

-IN WORKING STRESS METHOD FACTOR OF SAFTEY IS TAKEN WHERE AS IN ULTIMATE DESIGN LOAD FACTOR IS TAKEN WHICH IS THE RATION OF ULTIMATE LOAD TO THE WORKING LOAD.

-IN THIS CASE THE DIFFERENT LOADING PATTERNS CAN BE TAKEN INTO AND ALSO THE COMBINED LOADING CONDITIONS CAN ALSO APPLIED BUT THIS IS NOT POSSIBLE IN WORKING SRESS METHOD.-

-THIS METHOD RESULTS ECONOMICAL SECTION OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUCH AS BEAM, COLUMN AND ARE SLENDER SECTIONS.

-DUE TO THE SLENDERNESS SECTION DEFLECTION AND CRACKS DEVELOP UNDER SERVICE LOADS.

-ANALYSIS OF THIS METHOD IS STILL BASED ON LINEAR ELASTIC THEORY

describe the difference between yield stress and ultimate stress
of a steel element

The room is 5*6
Steel yield stress (fy = 60000 psi)
Concrete ultimate compressive strength (f’c = 4000 psi)
Reinforced concrete density = 150 lb/ft3.
Normal weight concrete is used.
The slab is treated as a one way slab and subjected to a dead
load of 120 psf (excluding the self-weight
of the slab) and a live load of 220 psf.
- The slab is supported by beams on the edges.
- There is a column at each corner of...

Why structural concrete is reinforced by steel? Discuss the
weakness and strength of both concrete and steel in this case

Question 1) In the Reinforced concrete answer all of these:
a) what the main difference between simply support slab and
continuous (fixed) slab and which one is the better?
b) what the difference between one-way and two- way slab and
which of them better to use?
c) why we use small L for the slab in Mu formula (Mu= Wu * L^2 /
8)?
d) how the load transfer from the slab to foundation?
e) is the beam ductile member...

Design a concrete mix for reinforced concrete beams of a
structure. The structure is located in a locality wherein water has
excess of chlorides in it. Required average compressive strength of
concrete has been determined to be 4700 psi. Beams have
cross-section of 9 in. x 21 in. reinforced with 4 # 6 bars.
Reinforcement has a concrete cover of 1.25 in. and there is a clear
space of 1.0 in. between form surface and steel bars. Fine
aggregate has...

I
mention everything in detail (Concrete mix design)
INTRODUCTION TO REINFORCED CONCRETE

Design a plain concrete footing for a 400 mm reinforced concrete
wall that supports a DL = 185 KN/m and 95 KN/m live load. The base
of the footing is to be 1.2 m below the final grade. fc’ = 20.7 Mpa
and allowable soil pressure is 200 Kpa, weight of soil is 15.82
KN/m3.
(ACI)

(a) In terms of relative strength, put fcd (design
strength of concrete), fck
(characteristic strength of concrete) and fcm (mean strength
of
concrete) in order from lowest to highest strength. (3)
(b) Approximately, what is the tensile strength of concrete as
a
percentage of its compressive strength? (1)
(c) Draw and name all necessary reinforcement for the simply
supported
beam and static loading case shown at Figure 3a. (6)
(d) Recreate the table in Figure 3b in your script books...

Design a wall footing to support a 30cm − wide reinforced
concrete wall with a dead load DL =293 KN/m and a live load
LL = 218 KN/m. The bottom of the footing is to be 1. 2m below
the
final grade, the soil weighs 16 KN m3 ⁄ , the allowable soil
pressure, qa = 192 KN m2 ⁄ , and there is no appreciable
sulfur
content in the soil. fy = 420MPa and fc′ = 21MPa, normal-
weight...

Design a square concrete column footing to support a 500-mm x
500-mm reinforced concrete column. The center of the column and
footing must coincide.
Loads: ???=350 ??, ???=480 ??, ???=100 ??−?, ???=130 ??−?
Column Design Criteria: ??′=28 ???, ??=400???
Footing Design Criteria: ??′=28 ???, ??=400???, ??=175 ???,??=1.50
?, ??=16 ??/?3,??=24 ??/?3, ??=20 ??, assume a thickness of the
footing of 500 mm.

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