In: Math

3.For variables measured at the nominal level, what values can the measures of association take on? What about variables at the ordinal and interval/ratio levels?

A variable can have four kinds of **levels of
measurement**:

Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or Ratio. It is on the basis of how the research question is phrased, dictate what statistical analysis is appropriate.

**1.Nominal:** This is the first level of
measurement .In this level of measurement, the numbers in the
variable are used only to classify the data. In this level of
measurement, words, letters, and alpha-numeric symbols can be used.
Example: In this case, the female gender could be classified as F,
male gender by M transgender as T.

**2.Ordinal:**This is the second level of
measurement.In this level of measurement variable’s of the
observations are ordered. Example: highest grade of 100 in the
class would be assigned the first rank;second highest grade of an
92; she would be assigned the second rank.

**3.Interval:** This is the third level of
measurement. In this interval level of measurement orders the
measurements and the distances between each interval on the scale
are equivalent along the scale from low interval to high interval
is measured. e.g.12 and 13 interval is same as 40 and 41.Another
example is temperature in centigrade, where, for example, the
interval between 920 C and 940 C is the same as the distance
between 1080 C and 1100 C.

**4.Ratio**:This is the fourth level of measurement
.In this level of measurement, the observations, in addition to
having equal intervals,value of zero is also considered. The zero
in the scale makes this type of measurement unlike the other types
of measurement.This is similar to the interval measurement .In the
ratio level of measurement, the divisions between the points on the
scale have an equivalent distance between them.

1. what steps can the government take to increase productivity?
2. The level of U.S. nominal GDP in 1997 was about 19 times what it
was in 1957. Yet it is clear that the typical person living in 1997
did not have 19 times as much stuff as a person living in 1957. How
can these two facts be reconciled? Please answer these question for
Macroeconomics class.

Suppose X and Y are independent random variables and take values
1, 2, 3, and 4 with probabilities 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4.
Compute
(a) the probability mass function of X + Y
(b) E[X + Y ]?

What are some of the measures -and their limitations- that a
central bank can take to defend the currency of that country that
is coming under sustained downward pressure in the foreign exchange
markets?

Determine the level of measurement for each of the variables:
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval - Ratio
a)
Number of people in family
b)
Percentage of university students who attend public school
c)
The rating of the overall quality of a textbook from excellent to
poor
d)
Your annual income
e)
The presidential candidate you voted for
f)
Your age

determine what level of measurements (interval/ratio, nominal,
ordinal) the following demographics are measured:
Number of children in a household, race, salary $75 k- 100 k,
ethnicity, political party,ideology, level of education (by
level),marital status, religion, religious affiliation, age in
years.

QUESTION 7
Which of the following measures the degree of linear association
between two variables?
a. covariance. b. standard deviation. c. variance. d.
coefficient of variation
QUESTION 8
If the sample size becomes larger, to which distribution does
the sampling distribution of the sample mean converge?
a. Normal distribution. b. Poisson distribution. c. Binomial
distribution. d. Uniform distribution.
QUESTION 9
Which of the following means an estimate of a population
parameter that provides an interval of values believed to contain...

The random variable X can take on the values 1, 2 and 3
and the random variable Y can take on the values 1, 3, and 4. The
joint probability distribution of X and Y is given in the following
table:
Y
1
3
4
X
1
0.1
0.15
0.1
2
0.1
0.1
0.1
3
0.1
0.2
a. What value should go in the blank cell?
b. Describe in words and notation the event
that has probability 0.2 in the...

Identify the possible values of each of the 3 variables in this
dataset and describe what information each of the 3 variables tells
us about the data
Heart rate before and after exercise
M=0 F=1
Resting
After Exercise
0
85.9
87.5
0
67.7
79.4
0
80.3
93.4
0
85.2
97.7
0
86.3
99.7
0
76.6
83.7

Determine the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal,
interval, ratio) for each of
the variables listed, and briefly state how you were able to
identify the level of measurement being
used. Each level of measurement may be used more than once, or
not at all.
1. Age (in years) of archaeological dig sites
2. Customer’s total order amounts, in U.S. dollars
3. The calendar years of birth for patients visiting a walk-in
clinic
4. Student ID numbers (every student has a...

Identify the level of measurement of each of the following
variables (Nominal, Ordinal, or Scale (Ratio):
1. County names in a state
2. Number of participants in food stamp programs.
3. Reputations of colleagues ranked on the scale of Very High to
Very Low.
4. Leadership ability measured on a scale from 0 to 5.
5. Divisions within a state agency.
6. Inventory broken down into three categories: tightly
controlled, moderately controlled, or minimally controlled.

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