A colleague of yours states that natural selection merely eliminates unfit mutants rather than creating “new” characters. Thus, he concludes that natural selection could not account for the evolution of new types of organisms. Do you agree?
Answer- i do not agree that natural selection does not account for evolution of new organisms , natural selection does eliminate unfavourable traits and increases the frequency of favourable alleles in a population, the organisms having favourable traits flourish and reproduce more offsprings with the favourable traits which help in adaptation and survival , over long periods of time these organisms evolve with certain physical charecteristics of adaptation . This could be over may years . A classical example of this is the Darwin's finches , the changes in shapes of beaks in Galapaggos finches to adapt to different food sources available in the different islands in Archipelago caused one species of finches to evolve into into distinct species with varying beak shapes over time . These evolved species survive better at their niches.
The evolution of species due to natural selection is not instant it takes over million of years .
If this helps please give it a positive rating thank you!